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0265 Notes on Marco Polo : vol.1
Notes on Marco Polo : vol.1 / Page 265 (Color Image)

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doi: 10.20676/00000246
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143. CIAGANNOR   249

History (§ 78). Later Turkish dialectical forms are angar, angyar, anggïr, angqur (RADLOV, I, 184, 186, 187), angqut (PAVET DE COURTEILLE, Dict. turc-oriental, 38), hangyut (SHAW, Vocabulary, 215), hangyirt (at Turfan; cf. VON LE COQ, Sprichwörter, 98), hang-yïrta (read hangyirt; in Ross, A Polyglot list of birds, No. 157). I shall not discuss here the various finals -t, -r, -rt in Turkish; in Mongolian, the word is always anggir (Kaim. /Mgr), plur. anggit. An -u-vowel in the second syllabe occurs only in western Turkish forms, and I suspect that the modern Chinese transcription nj t g Ang-ku-li is the result of a clerical error for Ang-chi ]Ii, rendering an original anggir. It is this anggir which occurs already as ang-chi in the Chin shih, but I do not think that it is the transcription of a word really used in Juêen. In Manchu, anggir niyehe, « anggir duck », was borrowed from the Mongolian at a late date. We have two Jucen vocabularies, one edited by GRUBE, the other unpublished : both give for yilan-yang a word *guyahu or *guyahung which has nothing to do with anggir. We are thus led to believe that the Chin shih gives us the Mongol name of the lake, either because the Chin inherited this name from the Ch'i-tan, or because the population of the region spoke Mongolian. At any rate, the persistance of the Mongol name from the 12th cent. down to our days precludes the possibility that it might have been superseded by that of tayân-nôr in the 13th and 14th cents.

Still more than the name, the study of the postal stages and the itineraries between Peking and Shang-tu in the Mongol period proves that Polo's Cayàn-nôr cannot be the ruined city east of the Anguli-nor which was spoken of by TIMKOVSKIY, PALLADIUS and YULE, and which is called

ayàn-balyasun in Mongolian, and   iyjk   Pai-ch'êng-tzti in Chinese, both meaning « White
City ». The discussion, started by BRETSCHNEIDER, has been pursued in much greater detail by YANAI, 752-768. It seems clear that Pai-ch'êng-tzû is not tûayàn-nör, but rather the place

which in Mongol times was known as 8 J1j Ch'ang-chou,   Jjj Pao-ch'ang-chou, and also
as 4* aj Chung-tu (of course different from the old Chung-tu = Peking; see « Cambaluc »). The lake called ayân-nôr by Polo must be the « Pain Cayân-nôr », about 80 Ii north-east of the « Anguli-nôr », and the « palace » with clay-walls lay probably just south-east of the « Pain Cayàn-nôr ».

YANAI (pp. 684, 761, 763) has also tried to identify with the palace of Cayàn-nor another ordo or hsing-kung mentioned in YS and certain other Chinese sources. In YS, 30, 4 b, it is

said that, in 1326, « the i-;ÿ   Ch'ing-ning-tien ( Ch'ing-ning Hall ') of Shang-tu was

removed to the fifi 4   g Pai-i-êrh hsing-kung ». In 1327, « the a HA j J Ch'in-ming-

tien (' Ch'in-ming Hall ') was completed at the Pai-i wo-êrh-to (ordo) » (YS, 30, 7 a), and

« camels and oxen were given to Pai-i wo-êrh-to (ordo) » (YS, 30, 8 a). The name of the Pai-i

wo-êrh-to also occurs in the Ching-shih ta-tien and in the   , Chin pien. YANAI explains

the « Pain » of « Pain Cayän-nôr » as being the Mong. bayan « rich », and thinks that the same

word is meant by Pai-i-êrh or Pai-i. The equation of « Pain » with bayan is by no means certain. On the other hand, Pai-i-êrh cannot render bayan, nor be identical with « Pain » ; but

if we take into account that Pai-i-êrh occurs only once, it may be that êrh unduly crept into the text (perhaps through a contamination due to wo-êrh-to), and that the true reading is Pai-i as in all other passages. But even then the phonetic resemblance between the name of the Pai-i ordo of the Mongol period and the modern name « Pain Cayàn-nôr » is not enough to