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0146 Notes on Marco Polo : vol.1
Notes on Marco Polo : vol.1 / Page 146 (Color Image)

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doi: 10.20676/00000246
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130   97. GAIL

owing to the encroachments of the river, is disappearing (cf. Ta-Ch'ing i-t'ung chih, 67, 3 a; Ch, III, 63). The Yung-lo ta-tien, 19426, 7 a, 9 b, names our Kua-chou, but, in the list of relays which I have translated elsewhere (see « Cingiu »), writes a ,~ Kua-pu. There have been two chên, one of Kua-chou, the other of Kua-pu, but I am not prepared to discuss the more or less conflicting data which have been collected about them in Tz'ü yüan (cf. Ch, III, 63) and in Timing to-tz'ü-tien, 237, 238.

Stan. GUYARD (in REINAUD, Géogr. d'Aboulféda, II, II, 125) identified Abù-'I-Fidà's y-~Hàjir with Polo's « Caigiu» = Kua-chou. This is certainly wrong, but Abü-l-Fidà's data are contradictory. The name may be borrowed from the Hàjû of the Hudûd al-qlam, and this actually is a Kua-chou or «Gourd District », but the well-known one of western Kan-su (Mi, 85, 233).

97. CALL

cael R   cauer TA3

cail F, Fr, t, FA, FB, VB, Z, cayl FAt

V, L   chail V

chauer TA', TA3 ciail LT

Now the poor village of old Kayal, Paiayakàyal, on the Tamraparni river, about a mile and a half from its mouth; cf. Y, II, 372-373; Y', III, 231; Hobson-Jobson2, 140; ELLIOT, Hist. of India, I, 72-73; DAMES, Barbosa, I, 190; II, 122-124; Fe, 530. The name is said to represent the Tamil küyal, lagoon », «backwater ».

Polo's form is in agreement with Conti's « Cahila » (Latin form, hence the Genoese Map's « Caila»; HALLBERG, 93), V. da Gama's « Cael », Giovanni da Empoli's « Gael » (read « Cael » ?), Varthema's « Chayl », Barbosa's « Cael », Canerio's «Caiio» (1502). Rasidu-'d-Din, Abdu-'r-

Razzaq, Sulayman al-Mahri, Sidi 'Ali Cäläbi write   Qàii (cf. Fe, 530), which there is no reason
to read Qàyai as is done by FERRAND in JA, 1922, II, 93 (« Kàyàl », given there twice, is wrong in any case). And the spelling «Koii » of the Ordnance Map of India, denounced by CALDWELL, is perhaps not so wrong. There must have been a pronunciation küil of kâyal, or the modern form Kàyai may be due to popular etymology.

The pronunciation Kàii, established by Mussulman and Western sources, is moreover confirmed by Chinese transcriptions. It is said in YS, 210, 7 b, that in 1281, the Sultan (suant'an= *soltan) of Ma'abar and his four brothers, intending to invade Quilon, «assembled on the

territory of Chia-i» (Kàii;   ZJ {~1 ; the name has been misunderstood in Pa, 604, and

TP, 1914, 431). The kingdom of jj i   i Jj Chia-i-lo (Kali) was visited by Chêng Ho in 1409-1411,

and its king, in 1411, is called Ko-pu-chê-ma (cf. TP, 1933, 289; 1934, 294). The names of Koku-io and Ku-lo, mentioned in Y', III, 118, have nothing to do with Kali.