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0329 Notes on Marco Polo : vol.1
Notes on Marco Polo : vol.1 / Page 329 (Color Image)

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doi: 10.20676/00000246
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158. CINGHIS   313

was a place called â * â A Ta-Ian-to-pa. KAo's identification cannot be retained. He was led to adopt it by «Sanang Setsen» who says that Chinghiz-khan died at Ling-chou, and the course of Ch'ing-shui-ho stretches between the Liu-p'an-shan and Ling-chou. But the text of the YS speaks not of the Ch'ing-shui-ho, but of the « district » (hsien) of Ch'ing-shui, which, beyond all doubt, was then situated, as it is now, on the Ch'ing-shui River which flows into the Wei. As to the Ch'ing-shui of the biography of Cayän, the identification is more difficult. The Ta-lan-ta-pa mentioned within its territory is a Mongolian place-name, very probably Daian-dabä (< Dalandaba'a), « Seventy Passes ». It is exceptional to find a Mongolian place-name in a territory which goes by a Chinese designation; when this occurs, the place is generally found to be in China rather than in Mongolia. Yet, the natural inference is that Cayän, after the campaign to the « south of the [Huang-]ho» with Ögödai, returned to Mongolia. At any rate he « returned north », which precludes the possibility that Ch'ing-shui might here mean either the district of Ch'ing-shui or the Ch'ing-shui-ho, both of which are south of the Huang-ho. Ta-Ian-to-pa, on the other hand, is hardly to be distinguished from the « region» (f ) of Ta-lan-ta-pa ( ), where Ögödäi was in the fifth month of 1234 (YS, 2, 2 a), from the «region » of Ta-ian-ta-pa [ iA ]-ssû Rtisj (Ta-ian-ta-pa-ssû in

Shêng-wu ch'in-chêng lu, 69 a) of A   Pa-li-li, where he was in the autumn of the same year
( YS, 2, 2 b), and from the « region» of Ta-ian-ta-pa-ssû where Güyük was elected Great Khan in 1245 ( YS, 2, 3 a). It is also, probably, the all; JP.) Dälän-täbän of Ber, I, 70, and certainly the

3Vllo Tûlan-dâbâs misread as « Talan-däbsäng» in Bl, II, 41, and in «Talan-dâban », ibid., Appendix, 25-26 (the only difficulty is that we should expect daba'an [Secret History, § 146], even when it occurs as daba'a [ibid., §§ 199, 251, 254], to form its plural as daba'at [as ibid., § 247], not as *daba'as > *dabas; but there are many such irregularities). Now, it is impossible to believe, with Kao Pao-ch'üan, that the *Daian-Dabä or *Daian-Dabäs to which Ögödäi resorted in 1234 and where Güyük was elected in 1245 lay in Kan-su; it was certainly in Mongolia, and I think that such was the case also for the *Daian-Dabä of Ch'ing-shui mentioned in Cayän's biography. Consequently, there must have been in Mongolia a Ch'ing-shui, of which we know nothing. I have discussed the name at some length because I shall have to revert to it further on.

The text of the Yüan shih, however precise it may seem to be as to the date and the place of the death of Chinghiz-khan, does not represent the only tradition of this event to be found in Chinese texts. The Cho-kêng lu, written in 1366, i. e. before the fall of the Mongol dynasty, says (I, 11 a) that Chinghiz-khan died in the Sa-li Valley, and the date it gives is identical with that of the Yiian-shih. But GAUBIL (Hist. de Gentchiscan, 51) as well as the Tz'ic yüan and the Chungkuo ti-ming to tz'û-tien (s. v. « Liu-p'an-shan») state that Chinghiz-khan died at the Liu-p'an-shan.

In his jt ` . TR fa Dian shih hsin pien (2, 13 b),   WEI Yüan (1794-1856) changes the text
of the YS to «he died in the hsing-kung of the Sa-li Valley of the Liu-p'an-shan ». Now, it is of course impossible that GAUBIL, WEI Yüan and the modern Chinese works of reference should reflect the opinion of Ragidu-'d-Din (which will be discussed later). Even in the YS, though with less precision, the passage of Cayän's biography translated above might suggest that Chinghiz-khan died at the Liu-p'an-shan. T'u Chi (3, 31 b) considers that Chinghiz-khan died after he had left the Liu-p'an-shan for the south, when trying to turn the Chin positions by passing on to Sung territory. He adduces, however, but rejects, the following passage which he says occurs in the