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0341 Notes on Marco Polo : vol.1
Notes on Marco Polo : vol.1 / Page 341 (Color Image)

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doi: 10.20676/00000246
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158. CINGHIS   325

itinerary, and not its Sa'ari-kä'är, which would correspond to the Sa'ari-kä'är of Chin Yu-tzû's account. I have no satisfactory solution to proffer. It may be that Qara-tün was a designation of the woody region immediately east of the Tula, and Sa'ari-kä'är a comprehensive term referring to the whole of the watery steppe west of the Kerulen; in Ming-tsung's itinerary, both Sa-Ii and Sa-li-ch'ieh-êrh would be Sa'ari-kä'är, with a more or less arbitrary specification not corresponding to the use of Sa'ari-kä'är by Chin Yu-tzû. But such and hypothesis is far from meeting all possible objections.

Whatever the case may be, it can hardly be doubted that Chin Yu-tzû, who was on the spot. knew what he was writing about when he said that Shuang-ch'üan-hai was the Sa'ari-kä'är of Chinghiz-khan and gave a description of it. Moreover, we are in a position to identify the « Twin Spring Lake » and the lake to the south of it. The southern lake is probably the « Kouen omo » of D'ANVILLE's Nouvel Atlas de la Chine (« Tartarie chinoise », seventh sheet; omo is the Manchu word for « lake »), the ki Kun-po, « Kun Lake », of the so-called Wu-ch'ang Map. It is also the Kun-mo of the Mêng-ku yu-mu chi (9, 24 b; cf. PoPov, Mên-gu yu-mu czi, 400), in which the second part of the Manchu omo has erroneously become part of the name in Chinese. An-

other   Kun-po in inner Mongolia (misread as « Gombo » by PoPov, 288) is said to be called
in Mongolian Gün-nôr, meaning « Deep Lake »; such is surely also the meaning of the name of the

Kun-po west of the Kerulen. This Gan-nôr also west of the Kerulen is the   Q, Chün-nao-
êrh to which Mongka repaired for the autumn in 1253 and again in 1257 (YS, 3, 2 b, 3 b; 72, 3 a)

and the   Chün-nao-êrh where Mongka issued in the autumn of 1255 an edict for the
suppression of certain Taoist books (cf. TP, 1904, 380; Tôyô gakuhô, xi', 103; YANAI, 388-389, 676; WALEY, Travels of an Alchemist, 31 [but read « Gun-nor », not « Kun-nor »]). The Chün-nao-êrh of YS, 100, 2 a, may be different. I see no reason to identify with the Gün-nôr

west of the Kerulen, as YANAI does, the 13 /4 00   K'ou-wên-nao-êrh of YS, 15, 3 a (*Käwün-
nor?; the same k'ou-wên, the restoration of which is uncertain, occurs in the name of a prince K'ou-wên-buqa in YS, 2, 2 b, 3 a, s. a. 1235 and 1237; it is also the name of a Mongol musical air mentioned in the Cho-kêng lu, 28, 8 a). There is still less ground to believe, with YANAI, that

the fff tr#   K'o-k'o-nao-êrh (Koko-nôr, « Blue Lake ») of YS, 3, 3 a, and 72, 1 b, and Rasidu-
'd-Din's )'y:) lff Kökä-nawûr (Oh, II, 195; Bl, 241) are but other names of the Gün-nôr (BLOCHET's identification of this Kökä-nawûr with « the famous =jj { [Ch'ing-hai, « Blue Sea »1 of the Chinese in the extreme west of Mongolia », i. e. with the Koko-rift of our maps, is absurd, and moreover the only well-known Koko-rift lies west of Kan-su, not in Western Mongolia; as to YANAI\ correction of D'OxssoN's ;)9; 4..:,ÇKüsä-nawur [Oh, II, 85; Bl, II, 49] to Kökä-nawur, it is arbitrary). I may add that the Kökö-na'ur (> Kökö-nôr) is mentioned in the Secret History, §§ 89,122 (cf. also Ta-Ming i-t'ung chit, 90, 27 b) in connection with the Sänggür, and so is not to be looked for to the west of the Kerulen.

The southern lake being the Gün-nôr, we can also identify the Shuang-ch'üan-hai or « Twin

Spring Lake ». North of the « Kouen omo », D'ANVILLE's map shows a « Calotey Omo », « Calotey

Lake », which is the PA   Ko-lao-t'ai-po, «Ko-lao-t'ai Lake », of the Wu-ch'ang map. NAKA
(Chingisu-kan jitsuroku, 122) was, I think, the first to connect this Ko-lao-t'ai Lake with Chin Yu-tzü's Shuang-ch'üan-hai; YANAI (389, 672) followed him; I have no doubt they are right. Ko-