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0158 Notes on Marco Polo : vol.1
Notes on Marco Polo : vol.1 / Page 158 (Color Image)

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doi: 10.20676/00000246
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142   108. CAMBALUC

in SBPrAkdrV, 1935, 156, 168. Moreover, it is to the ancient Chin capital that the name, strictly speaking, is applied by Polo and Odoric, to distinguish it from Qubilai's new capital of Ta-tu (see «Taidu »).

Before becoming the capital of the Chin, Peking had been that of the Liao. The Liao had their Southern Capital (Nan-thing) there first in 938 (Liao shih, 4, I a; not 936, as in BRETSCHNEIDER, Rech. archéol., 18, and in Y, i, 375, nor 986, as in Ch, II, 55) ; in 1012, resuscitating an old Chinese name, they called it ii ,* Yen-ching. The Chin at first retained that name, but, in 1153 (Chin shih, 5, 4 b; 24, 9 a; not 1151, as in Y, I, 375, Ch, II, 55, and RR, 429), changed it to Chung-tu, «Middle Capital », the prefectural name of the city being J .t fff Ta-hsing-fu. The pians for the Imperial Palace had been submitted to the Throne in 1151 (Chin shih, 5, 3 b; 24, 9 a), and, in the same year, orders had been given to extend the walls of the city. These walls and the Palace suffered great damage when the Chin capital was conquered by the Mongols in 1215. Ögödäi is reported to have created there a census administration in 1235 (YS, 58, i b). Already in 1215, the Mongols are said to have established there a «prefectoial office (fu) of Ta-hsing in general charge of the district (lu) of Yen-ching » (Yenching-lu tsung-kuan Ta-hsing-fu); but, besides the names of Yen-thing and Ta-hsing, one still meets, occasionally, the name of Chung-tu (as for instance, in 1261, 7th moon; 1262, 10th and 11th moon; YS, 4, 5 a, 8 b, 9 a). This must be a survival in Mongolian and in texts translated from Mongol originals of the name the Mongols used at the time of the conquest of 1215; for we have in Mongolian Jungdu (= Peking) in the Secret History (§§ 247, 248, 251, 252, 273).

In 1263, the name of K'ai-p'ing-fu had been changed to Shang-tu (« Upper Capital »). The next year, the officials of the Imperial Secretariat reported as follows : «The site of the Palace at K'ai-p'ing-fu has received the higher name of Shang-tu. We beg that the Grand Secretariat separately established at Yen-ching should also be named appropriately ». The name of Yen-ching was changed to Chung-tu on September 5, 1264 (that is to say the Capital again took the name given to it by the Chin in 1153) ; but the prefectural name of Tahsing-fu remained the same as before ( YS, 5, 9 a; 58, i b-2 a). On November 7, 1261, the rebuilding of the ancient walls of Yen-thing had come under deliberation ( YS, 4, 8 b), but it seems that no decision was reached. At any rate, nothing was done until 1267, when it was decided, instead of restoring Chung-tu, to build to the north-east of it a new walled town which was called Ta-tu and to which the offices of the Capital were transferred in 1272 (see «Taidu »).

The name of Chung-tu was known to Rasidu-'d-Din, who writes it   y Jungdu (Bl, II, 19,
386, 455), and expressly says that it is the Chinese name of Han-baiiq, while he does not say the same of Ta-tu. Elsewhere, he speaks of Chinghiz-khan, who stopped in the neighbourhood of «Jungdu, which the Mongols formerly called Han-baiiq» (Ber, III, 22). It is Jungdu which has been mistaken for Shang-tu by LE STRANGE, Nuzhat al-Qulicb, transi., 250-251.

The historian Hethum speaks of a city built by Qubilai, where Qubilai always lived, which was called «Jong»; this name seems to be meant for Chung-tu, which was mistaken for Ta-tu (cf. Hist. des Crois., Arm., ii, 988). The «Jung» or «Jong» of Paolino da Venezia is simply taken from Hethum (cf. GOLUBOVICH, Bibl. bio-bibi., II, 93, 97, 603, where the identification with Yang-chou is wrong).