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0215 Notes on Marco Polo : vol.1
Notes on Marco Polo : vol.1 / Page 215 (Color Image)

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doi: 10.20676/00000246
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123. CASCAR   199

of Buddhist Literature, 121, 725). Now, VASIL'EV drew attention many years ago to an Armenian text in which Mekhitar of Airivang mentions Kharustr as the initiator of astronomy in Chaldea (cf. SCHIEFNER, Wassiliew's Vorrede, 30); VASIL'EV thought of connecting Kharustr with Zoroaster. WEBER (Ind. Streifen, in, 8-9; Hist. of Indian Literature, 247-248) preferred to establish a relation between Kharustr and a Kraustuki mentioned as an astrologer in the Atharvaparisista. But it seems to me almost evident that we cannot distinguish between the astronomer Kharustr of Armenian sources and the astronomer Kharostha or, in Iranian form, *Kharostrag. There may not have been a country called Kharostra or *Kharostrag, but there was a legendary name Kharostha or Kharostrag, perhaps of Iranian origin, with a wide range of application in the countries adjacent to India in the north-west. It never was a name of Kâsyar, but we are indebted to Hui-yüan's unfortunate etymology for the possibility of a more correct appreciation of its past significance.

The Tibetan text mentioned above says that, after the Buddha Kâiyapa had preached the law and before the Buddha Sâkyamuni was born in India, the sages Kha-ra-sva and Kha-re'u-step settled on a mountain of the country of Khotan (THOMAS, Tibetan Texts and Documents, I, 93). Just as Kha-re'u-stefi is obviously identical with *Kharostrag, which is given by Hui-yüan as the « correct » name of Shu-lo (Kàsyar), Kha-ra-sva (certainly the « Kharasha » of S. C. DAS in JASB, I.v [1887], 194) seems to represent the same name as dip 7 7% ß` Chia-lo-sha-mo (*Ka-Iâ-sa-muâ), which occurs in the Sûryagarbha as the name of Khotan at the time of the Buddha Kâsyapa (cf. Ltvi, in BEFEO, II, 250; v, 257). On the other hand, this last name has a fair chance of being the same which, in the glosses devoted by the Fan Fan yü to Fa-mêng's lost Wai kuo chuan

(beginning of the 5th cent.; cf. BEFEO, III, 131-434), appears as Jip ,   * Chia-Io-shê-mo
(*Ka-iâ-sja-muât) in an edition used by Ltvi (JA, 1915, I, 77), but as Chia-Io-shê-mu [7K] (*Kaiâ-§ia-muk) in Taishii Tripit. 54, 1037. The translation of the name given in the Fan Fan yü,

which is said to be provided by Fa-mêng himself, is a1a   ( , « Kingdom (kuo) full (man) of
eagles (ying) and gold (chin) [or of eagle-gold ?] ». As one of the meanings of khara in Indian lexicons is « eagle », though not attested in any text, and although neither transcription shows an aspirated initial, Ltvi restored the first part of the name to Khara°, and this at least is confirmed by the Tibetan Kha-ra-sva. According to LAvi, the whole name would be Khara-Syàma, and represent the name of a village Khara, coupled with that of the country Syâma or Syâmâka. On the correctness of that restoration, LÜDERS (Weitere Beiträge xür Gesch. and Geogr. von Ostturkestan, in SPA W, 1930, 39) has expressed certain doubts which are based on the Chinese translation «full of eagles and gold»; I think that the very principle of the equivalence is unacceptable. In the Sûryagarbha, the village of Khara is reached by Kàtyàyana when he leaves Rauruka; he then passes through the country of Lampàka, and only afterwards arrives at Syâmâka. Khara and Syâmàka occur in the same text, but they are not connected. Moreover, Chia-lo-sha-mo and Chia-lo-shê-mo suggest *KharAsma° rather than Khara-Syàmaka; only the final is uncertain. The Chinese translation is difficult to interpret ; many of the glosses are corrupt, and even when they are not, those attributed to Fa-mêng are often as fantastic as those which seem to be due to the compiler of the Fan Fan yä. My impression is that Fa-mêng took the name to have been formed of two elements, one being khara, which he interpreted as «eagle », and the other in which he saw some