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0390 Notes on Marco Polo : vol.1
Notes on Marco Polo : vol.1 / Page 390 (Color Image)

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doi: 10.20676/00000246
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374   161. CIORCIA

mentions (5, 21 b ; cf. also Wên-hsien t'ung-k'ao, 197, 2 b) the Li mou Hsia lu in seven chapters

(not in one or in three chapters, as said above) as the work of .   Wang Tsao, and the same
authorship is given in the bibliographical section of the Sung chih (203, 11 a), where, however, the I-i mou Hsia lu is said to be only in three chapters. Now, it is most improbable that there should have been two different works of the Sung period with the same rare title of I-i mou Hsia-lu; one of the attributions (or perhaps both of them) must be erroneous. Wang Tsao (1079-1154) was a well-known statesman and writer (cf. GILES, Biogr. Dict. No 2236, to be combined with the pseudo-Wang Kung-tsao of No. 2192), but a cursory examination of his

literary collection, entitled l .   Fou-ch'i chi (ed. Ssû pu ts'ung-k'an), has failed to reveal to
me anything to suggest his possible authorship of the I-i mou Hsia lu. Whether the I-i mou Hsia lu be due to Wang Tsao or to Liu Chung-shu, and whether or not it be a work of the first half of the twelfth century, the fact remains that it already existed c. 1235 when the Chihchai shu-lu chieh-t'i was completed, and so antedates both the Ta-Chin kuo chih and the Wênhsien t'ung-k'ao. Although I cannot cite the I-i mou Hsia lu at first hand, the following passage is quoted in Li Wên-L'ien's Commentary on the Secret History (ed. T'ung-yin-yang, 1896, 7, 2 a) : « The I-i mou Hsia lu of Liu Chung-shu of the Sung says : ' The original name of the

kingdom of Chin was   -. Chu-li-chên. To avoid [the use of] the personal name Tsung-
chên of Hsing-tsung of the Ch'i-tan, [the Nü-chên] have also been called Nü-chih. In [the period] chêng-kuan (627-649) of the T'ang the Mo-ho came [to render homage to the Court] ; the Middle Kingdom [then] heard for the first of the name of the Nü-chên. For generations, [the Nü-chên] lived east of the Hun-t'ung-chiang; [to the east] (there is clearly a lacuna here, due to haplography between the two tung, « east », of the other texts, and so the intervening limits of the Nü-chên have been omitted) they reached the sea. They are what the San-kuo chih calls I-iou. They lived on the Ch'ang-pai-shan, [where] the Ya-lu-shui takes its rise'. »

When comparing these four texts, one cannot but be struck by their close connection and even, in many cases, by their identical wording. The most sober and accurate version is that of the San-ch'ao pei-mêng hui-pien. There the author draws a clear line between hearsay tradition and accurate information, and says neither that the name of the Nü-chên was known in the seventh century, nor that there was another form Lü-chên of Nü-chên. The statement that the name of the Nü-chên was known in early T'ang times occurs for the first time in the I-i mou Hsia lu. It was certainly from the latter work that it passed into the Ta-Chin kuo chih and the Wên-hsien t'ung-k'ao, but neither of the authors of these later works noticed that it was in contradiction with another statement, which they copied from the Sung-mo chi-wên or the San-ch'ao pei-mêng hui pien, to wit that the name Nü-chên made its appearance only in the tenth century. That the author of the Ta-Chin kuo chih knew either the Sung-mo chi-wen or the San-ch'ao pei-mêng hui-pien (or perhaps both) is quite certain. If an additional proof should be required, it would be provided by the passage of the Ta-Chin kuo chih (32, 2 b) in

which it is said that the Nü-chên terms for « wife » and « husband » were   Jj[5 sa-na (the j
ksa-sa in the Chin chih [Shuo fu, 86, 12 b] is corrupt) and j t$c ai-kên respectively. This is clearly drawn from the Sung-mo chi-wên, 14 a, or the San-ch'ao pei-mêng hui-pien, 3, 4 b,

where we read, more correctly, that the Nü-chên terms for « wife » and « husband » were   4/5