212 ANCIENT SITES OF
The foremost of the two riders appears to be without clothing. The R. arm and hand are raised as though holding or caressing the horse's mane. The left arm hangs down and in front, and the hand appears to grasp a narrow bag-like object which is thrown across the horse in front of the rider. This may be intended for the front of a saddle. The rider's head is grotesque and set low on the square shoulders.
The rear figure, also astride, appears to have an object in front of it, which may be intended to represent the back of the saddle. A fur cloak or perhaps just an animal's skin hangs from the neck and shoulders, in five long plaits or sections, one of them resting on what appears to be the horse's tail twisted up into a ball. The two arms graQp the foremost figure. Length 2", height 2", breadth ir. See Plate XLVI.
Y. oog. i. Terra-cotta fragment of squatting monkey, legs missing. The workmanship of this example, although rapid, is very clever. The character of the monkey is perfectly preserved, while human interest is given by the expression of the face, and the handling of the sitar it is playing. The hair on its head is expressed by a few strokes of the sharp point or blade of a modelling tool ; yet it is unmistakably the growth of the hair of the monkey. The eyes are apparently put in with a stamp. The mouth is cut with a thin instrument, with a hole dug at each corner giving a humorous expression. Height i*", width z". See Plate XLVI.
Y. oog. j. Terra-cotta grotesque ornament, from a jar. Half human and half lion head in relief. The heavy lion's upper lip is marked with holes to represent the large bristles and softens off on each side into sweeping human moustache curling upwards. The nostrils of the broad nose are directed forwards ; the eyes are deep sunk under heavy brows and are modelled as round beads with a hole in the centre of each. They are cleverly placed and the surrounding part well modelled. The brows are heavily contracted, and above is human hair parted in the centre and brushed right and left. The single ear unbroken stands out sharply from the temple and is not well placed. The whole is evidently cast in a mould. The hole in the L. proper nostril goes through to the back of the cast, as does also one at the right proper angle of the mouth. Height xr, width 2". See Plate XLVII.
Y. oog. k. Square bronze seal, representing a cow to left being milked by a seated figure. A calf tries to suck and has its head directed upwards and to the R. towards udder. The cow's head is turned full face as though to watch calf. Well proportioned and of good design. There is a small hole through thin part ; perhaps a fault in casting. Shank at back, broken. ig" square. See Plate L.
Y. oog. 1. Terra-cotta Bactrian camel, badly modelled. Made in two halves, in moulds, and joined before firing.
THE KHOTAN OASIS [Chap. VIII
The tail, which is twisted laterally, was put on separately. Portions of a broad girth remain. Long hair on front of neck indicated by coarse toolings. There is other harness indicated on the legs. The four legs are represented by two thickened pieces, one fore and the other hind. On the top of the head is a conical protuberance similar to those on Y. oog. a. Length 2g", height 2k', thickness i". See Plate XLVII.
Y. oog. m. Fragment of terra-cotta grotesque monkey. Portion of torso and head only. The face is very owl-like and the eyes have been put in with a stamp. The head is turned to R. proper. The arms appear to have been outstretched. Height â", width h".
Y. oog. n. Terra-cotta bird, made to string on a thread as a bead. Judging from its general form and the large erect crest it is probably intended to represent the hoopoe. The beak is missing. The bird is well-shaped, with wings (which are broken at end) folded over body. There are markings indicating feathers, and transverse lines incised to suggest the different rows of wing feathers, and probably their colouring. No legs. Length Ir. See Plate XLVI.
Y. oog. o. Terra-cotta grotesque monkey squatting on his heels. With both hands he holds something to his mouth, probably a syrinx. In his lap is an object probably meant to represent a sort of short kilt. Height
width i". See Plate XLVII.
Y. oog. p. Terra-cotta grotesque head, probably ornament from a jar. It is a purely animal head something like that of a hyaena, but all the teeth (shown in the upper jaw, the mouth being open) are short and regular. The end of the nose is broken. Heavy, curled moustaches furnish the upper lip ; the eyebrows are treated similarly and have the appearance of buffalo horns, two holes being placed near their bases which meet above the nose. The eyes seem to have been applied after the head came from the mould, as were also the several holes. There is a hole in the centre of the curled ends of the horn-like eyebrows. Two large, long and thick ears issue from beneath the eyebrows. The receding forehead is in two large ridges, and closely curled hair surrounds the piece, the centre of each curl having a hole. There is no chin, and the lower lip is modelled. The back is hollowed out, and the impressions of the maker's thumbs and fingers are clearly registered. Height 2k", width 2k", depth rr. See Plate XLIV.
Y. oog. q. Terra-cotta grotesque monkey seated astride a phallus. Naturalistic type and cleverly executed. The figure is a female, having well-developed human breasts. Portion of the tail remains. The legs are gathered up so that the heels touch the buttocks, and the phallus upon which the figure is astride runs backwards, forms a ring, and brings its head straight up between knees of figure and as high as the waist. From below the legs of the figure issue downwards a second pair of