madan names of Kashgar, 48, 67 ; Chinese etymologies of the name, 48 sq. ; Western etymologies, 5o ; supposed connexion with Khaga, 51 ; Marco Polo's opinion of the people of Cascar', 49 n., 7o-; called Shulik in early Tibetan records, 5o ; suggested derivation from Kash, 'jade,' ib. n. ; in the Annals of the Former Han Dynasty, 52 ; and of the Later Han Dynasty, 53, 55, 57 ; account given by Maas, 54 ; invaded by the Great Yüeh-chih, 55 ; the Hinayana School predominant in, 56, 69 ; dependent on Khotan, 57 ; subject to the Hephthalites, 58 ; to the Western Turks, ib. ; Chinese authority reestablished, 6o ; embassies from the king of Kashgar to the Imperial court, 6r ; occupied by the Tibetans, ib. ; expedition of Qutayba ibn Muslim, 62; Wu-k'ung's account of K., 64, 66 sq. ; Islam established at K., 65 ; references to K. in the Tang Annals, 65 sq. ; Fa-hsien's notice of K., 67 sq. ; visited by Fa-yung and Tao-yo, 69 ; Hsüan-tsang's account of K., 69 sq. ; Christianity in K., 71 sq. ; infusion of Kirghiz blood in K., 147 ; war with, and conquest of, Khotan, i 8o sq. ; mentioned in Annals of the Three Kingdoms, 168; in N. xv. 93. a, b, 371, 537 ; called 8u-lig by the Tibetans, 581.
Kâshgar, city of, Mirzâ Haidar's account of, 73 n.; citadel of, ib.
Kashgaria, Eastern Turkestan, a term of modern Russian origin, 51.
Kashkâr, see Chitral.
Kashmir (Ku-shih-mi, Kou-the-mi), ' Gates' or watch-stations of, 2; visited by Wu-k`ung, ib. ; ' Northern Gate' of, ib. ; Western Gate (Bâramûla), 4 ; called Ku-shih-mi by the Chinese, 6 ; transport of supplies to Gilgit, i 1, 12 ; king of, an ally of China, r i, 13 ; called Keshimur by Marco Polo, i 4 n.; wrongly identified with Chi-pin, 53 n. ; early connexion with Khotan, i r 8 ; resemblance of Khotan and K.legends, 16o ; Buddhism said to have been introduced into Khotan from K., 164, 231, 232 ; resemblance between Khotanesc and Kashmiris, 165 ; Arhats come to Khotan from K., 582 sq.
Kâvca ôpn, Ptolemy's name for the Kunlun range, not for Kâshgar, 5o, or for the Khagas, 5i ; suggested relation with Kash, ' jade,' 5o n.
Kâsim Akhûn, hunter, 237 ; engaged as guide, 238 ; digs wells, 239.
Kayâsh, canton of Khotan, 131 n. sq. kazan (pot), 234.
Kenhân', province of, identified with oases from Keriya to Chira, 463.
Kenk-kiök, grazing-ground, 453. kepek-altun, gold-dust, 193• Kepek-gholuk Mazâr, shrine, 112. Kergah Nullah, rock-carved relief of
Buddha, 17; ancient water-conduit,
Keriya river, perhaps supplied canals of Dandan-Uiliq, 285; alleged old course of, 286 sq. ; once reached Tarim R.,
Keriya, town and district, officially styled Y17-1`ien by the Chinese, i55 n., 310 n., 467 ; objects acquired at, 467, 469 ; age of town, 467 ; one of the ' Six Cities', 268, 522 n.
Keshimur, Marco Polo's name for Kashmir, 14 n.
kelman (hoe), 238.
' Keytous Maghrébî', tomb of, 229 n. Khakha, hill-tribe, the ancient Khagas, 51 n.
Khalche, hamlet, 191, 195, 196, 199,
Khâm', rough cotton material, 112, 134, 174 n.
Khan-arik, village, 515•
Khan-ui (the Khan's residence '), ruins near, 79 sq.
Kharosthi, derivation of the term, 49 ; MS. said to have been found in cave at Kohmâri, 188 ; script on SinoKharosthï coins, 205; characters (?) on seals (B. D. oo1. j), 219, (N. xv. 24), 355 ; script in Taxila region, 368 sq.
Kharosthi documents from Niya Site, deciphered and published by Prof. Rapson, xii, 326 sqq., 364 sqq. ; contain words probably of Tibetan origin, 149 ; support the tradition of an immigration from Taxila to Khotan, 163 ; prove the use of the Kharosthi script in third cent. A. n., 205 ; first find of, 312, 316 sqq. ; description of tablets, 318 sqq., 347 sqq., 357 ; documents on leather, 344 sqq. ; decipherment of Kharosthi documents, 363 sqq. ; technical terms for, 368 ; date of, 369.
*Kharostra, suggested as an ancient name of Kashgar, 49 ; as a much wider geographical designation, ib. n.
Khagas, hill-tribes along the whole Himalaya range, unconnected with Kâshgar, 51 ; possibly referred to in the term Khasyalipi, ib. ; the modern Khakha tribe, ib. n.
Khasya or Khasya writing, see Khâsyalipi.
Khasyalipi or Khasya writing, more probably refers to the Khaas, than to Kia-sha (Ch'ia-sha), Kâshgar, 51.
Khat', writing, 256 sqq., 272.
I Khitai khats ' (Chinese documents), 267.
khitailik sighiz, ' Chinese earth-bank,'
Khb, name of Yârkhiin Valley below Mastûj, 16 n.
Khodana, Prâkrit name of Khotan, 154, 367. See Khotan.
Khöja Mahab Khöjam, see Muhibb Khwâja.
Khotamna, Prâkrit name of Khotan, 154, 367. See Khotan.
Khotan (Sanskrit and Prâkrit, Kuslana or Kustanaka, Khotamna, Khodana orKholana; Chinese, Ch'ien-tun, Ch`iisa-tan-na, Ch'ü-tan, Ho-lien, Huanna, Huo-tan, Yü-fien, and Yil-tun ; Manchu, Ho-thaan ; Mongol, Hu-fan, 0-duan, Wa-duan, Wu-duan; Tibetan, Liyyul, U-then (Hu.then)).
history of the kingdom of Khotan : conquered by Tu-man, 6o ; attacked by the Tibetans, 61; historical notices of K., x51 sqq. ; Chinese records, 151 ; Tibetan notices, 152, 581 sqq. ; ancient names, 153 sqq. ; modern names, 155 ; legendary traditions, 156 sqq. ; Hsüan-tsang's legend of its origin, 156 sq., 159; Tibetan version, 159 sq.; resemblance between Khotan and Kashmir legends, i 6o; historical background of legend, 163 ; date of supposed Indian immigration, 164 ; historical notices of K. in Chinese records, 166 sqq. ; Former Han Annals, 166 ; Later Han Annals, 167 sq. ; Fa-hsien's account, 169 ; Liang Annals, 170 ; Sung Yün's account, ib.; Hui-shêng's account, 171; under the White Huns, ib.; during the Tang Period, 172 sqq., 522 D. ; described in the Tang Annals, 172 sq. ; by Hsüan-tsang, 174 ; included in the ' Four Garrisons ', 175 ; kings of K. during the Tang Period, x75, 176 sq. ; Tibetan inroads, 17 6 ; end of Chinese supremacy, 177 ; Chinese mission to K., under Posterior Han Dynasty, r 78 sq. ; conquered by Muhammadan ruler of Kâshgar, 18o sq. ; rule of Muhammad Arslân Khan, 461; embassies from K. in Sung Annals, 182 ; under Kara Khitai and Mongol rule, 183, 463 ; visited by Marco Polo, 183; notice in Ming Annals, ib.; Yôtkan, on the site of the ancient capital, 190, 199 ; ' the King's New Monastery ', near K., 194, 224 ; date of the abandonment of the ancient capital, uncertain, 156 n., 206 ; the territory of K. designated the Six Cities ', 266, 267, 522 n. ; early kings of K., 581 sqq.
art and culture : influence of Chinese civilization on Khotan, viii; diversity of cultural influences, ib., 357; connexion of its art with GraecoBuddhist art of Gandhâra, ib., 1i8,