Sec. v] BUDDHIST SITES DESCRIBED BY HSÜAN-TSANG 235
transcriptions Tsar-ma in Tibetan and Tsan-mo in Chinese clearly pre-suppose as their original. Can the mound of Chalma-kazan have derived its name, literally meaning the ` pot of Chalma', from the designation once borne by the chief object of worship at *Charma, the ` Stutpa of the inverted 5âtra' ? The word kazân, however common in its ordinary use, is not known to me as forming the second part in any local name of Turkestan, a circumstance which, in view of the great uniformity observed in Turk' local nomenclature, makes its use here as a component part all the more curious.
I do not know how, if the old site of Chalma-kazan really marks the position of Vairocana's shrine, we should have to account for the distance of io li noted by Hsüan-tsang. But it may be useful to point out that the pilgrim's estimate of distance for Mount Gogrnga supplies an unquestioned instance of similar error on the same ground. Hsüan-tsang places Mount Go§rtiga 20 li or about 4 miles to the south-west of the Khotan capital. Here, too, we have a correct bearing ; but the distance is very considerably underestimated, since, as a look at the map shows, the hill of Kohmari, whose identity with Mount Gogrnga has been definitely established, lies fully I I miles from Yatkan 47.
C. 002. b. Four fragments of glass, moulded, of greenish and pinkish tints. See Plate LII.
C. 002. c. Two fragments of flint. Perhaps from the glass-maker's workshop where such flint was probably used. See Plate LII.
C. 004. Fragment of grotesque face, showing about â of nose, portion of mouth and strongly recurving moustache (cf. Y. oo18, B. oo1. a). The nose is much exaggerated in length, but otherwise well modelled. Face evidently made in a mould, and seems to be surfaced with a finer clay than the inner substance. Height I*" x I". See Plate XLIV.