The caves are represented like arbours, with arched entrances suggesting built stone-work in their trimness, and are framed by jutting rocks on which grow broad-leaved plants and pine-trees. They are painted light sepia smeared with red and heavily scored with black ; interiors are greyish-blue. Outside each cave (except the bottom one on L.) is a red tripod table supporting a folding white table-top ; on this again (outside top cave on L.) is a flask. It has an ovoid body with flat base, long neck, and sq. mouth.
Outside this cave and the one next it are pools (?) of green water, covered with broad-leaved plants and surrounded by circular white stone-work. At R. end of each line of caves appears a stream, painted in greyish blue, flowing in a cascade to the ground level. On further bank rises a tree, almost effaced in upper scene but complete in lower. It has a broad flat top painted solid green with four circular flowers or fruits, red with yellow borders ; on the lower branch hangs a grey cloth, perhaps a votive offering. Of tree above only part of stem remains, and ends of cloth. Between the two caves immediately to L. are ends of similar drapery hanging beside a gigantic pine-cone ; but all this upper corner is much destroyed.
Beneath the pine-cone is seen the head of a mountain sheep of Ovis Ammon or Poli type, browsing off rock plants, and on the crags of the cave below (last on R. of bottom row) is perched a goat or deer similarly engaged. This animal is painted in sepia with white breast, tail, and hind-quarters, and he has black horns set rather wide at base and curving outwards, then "slightly recurving towards tips.
Panels : , H. (when complete) 2' 4"; width (5) I' 7 ", (6) 9", (7) I' 4", (9) I' 9". Length of series 7'. Pls. CxxV and (5-6) Cxx1v.
Mi. xiii. In. Fresco panel, incomplete, from west passage of temple, showing group of Buddhist disciples. They stand in two rows, six above and four below, and all are turned â to L. with their hands in attitude of worship. The lower row are on a smaller scale than the upper ; their feet and lower legs lost.
All are arrayed in light yellow or yellow-green robes, swathed closely round their persons, an edge drawn over the R. shoulder, and the loose end thrown back over L. Their robes are figured with repeating spots of rosette, palmette, or Chinese weeping-willow branch designs, executed roughly in red on the yellow and in grey on the green. Some have also a maroon scarf across the breast. The upper row show vermilion under-robes just covering their ankles. Beneath appear their feet shod in black slippers orn. with a row of white dots round the opening. From closed finger-tips of each monk in upper row issues a three-leaved spray which breaks monotonous row of pale heads on maroon background.
The figs. are erect and somewhat stiffly set; they have broad shoulders and slim waists. Their upper half, including the heads, is very well drawn ; but in upper row this
part of the fig. is much too large for the legs. The smaller figs. are better proportioned. The heads show a marked difference in type from those of the preceding frescoes (I)-(9). They are long and flat-crowned, with Grecian noses, moderately oblique eyes, and short ears. The line of forehead and cheek, and also of back of head, as seen in â profile, is very straight ; the chin broad and round and the mouth very small. The eyebrows are in only one case represented by single arched line ; in the rest they are emphasized by four or five additional lines almost straight, but sloping upwards. A single line is drawn round the base of the neck. The hair is black and close-cut. In the figs. in upper line drooping moustaches and a small imperial are washed in in dull blue, while under-surface of chin is also so coloured. The flesh is painted a uniform pale flesh-colour of rather greyish tone ; there is no shading, and no colour added for lips or the whites of eyes.
The drawing of the heads is exceptionally good and clean. A certain variety of expression is attained by slight variations in angle of eyes, direction of gaze, tilt of head, etc., while the third fig. in each line turns to his companion behind, breaking uniformity of pose in group. All outlines are black, and a band of white bounds the panel at upper edge.
The material is coarse clay, as in the preceding frescoes; the painting, in tempera, is by a lighter and more skilful hand. It is better finished, the drawing more careful and the colouring less crude and hasty. Except for some extensive cracks, surface well preserved.
H. 2' 2", width 2' 7". PI. CXXIV.
Mi. xiii. II-I2. Pair of fresco panels from west wall of chamber behind temple cella (for position, see Pl. 53). The style and technique are those of the preceding series (I)—(9), and the colours the same with the addition of vermilion and a dull blue. The upper part of (r a) is lost, but at bottom are seen the yellow band and red stone blocks as in (5)—(9). The background again is of maroon, sprinkled with yellow trefoils and large falling blossoms, red, dark green, and yellow.
In (is), which in position corresponds to (r), only two figs. kneeling one above the other, to R., with hands in adoration. The upper is a monk, in short green robe lined with yellow, kneeling on a yellow Padmasana, his knees bare. Head of same type as that of former monks ; but it has become effaced and been very badly redrawn ; eyes and eyebrows lowered, while nose is shortened. Traces of orig. features remain. Below is a haloed Bodhisattva with dull blue stole and pink halo; dress and fig. as in Mi. xiii. I-2, head uplifted. Below him is a stone-edged tank (?), similar to the one seen in (I2). (Cf. water-pools in 5-9.) The coping is of grey arched stones, with carmine border, and the water green.
(I2) is incomplete. The centre of interest lay evidently on R. of portion preserved, as the attention of most of figs. is directed that way. The subject cannot be identified. One small group on L. seems, however,