1356 NOTES ON THE PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY OF [Appondix C
(since the -0, in spite of the fact that one of its fifteen factors is a whole number, is only 3.64) ; consequently their 2A has been printed in ordinary type, and it may be allowed that a close relationship exists between them.
Let us first regard the table from the point of view of similarity. The lowest °,0 is that for Turfan and Korla, which, though it contains fifteen factors, amounts only to 2.03. This remarkably low figure shows clearly that the populations of the two localities are not merely closely related but practically identical. Two other IA fall below 3, viz. Turfan and Khotan (2.98) and Kirghiz and Dolan (2.84), and indicate nearly as close a relationship between these pairs of tribes relatively. (See Table io, which shows more clearly the inter-relation of the various tribes ; names in italics indicate that the MA contains a 0 as factor which amounts to 1.00 or over with the exceptions noted above.) If the ZO is raised to 4, we find that the Dolan, Kelpin, and Kirghiz form a closely-related group of three, that the Wakhi are related to Turfan, that Keriya pairs with Niya, and Bagh.jigda with the Sarikoli. To anticipate, therefore, we have the nuclei of three groups, the Kirghiz group, the Turfan group, to which one mountâin people, the Wakhi, are closely related, and the Pamir group, with an outlying branch at Bagh-jigda. If the M0 be raised to 5, these groups materialize more distinctly. It is now seen that Turfan, Korla, Khotan, and Wakhi are all inter-related by F,A under 5 ; and that Turfan, Korla, and Hami stand in similar relationship. Further that Sarikoli, Bagh-jigda, and Pakhpu constitute a similar group ; while the KirghizKelpin-Dolan group remains unchanged. For convenience the first group will be called the Desert group (although it includes the Wakhi) ; the group containing the Sarikoli, the Pamir group ; and the list, the Kirghiz group. Now if we look at the Mastuji we see that they are related to the Pamir group through the Sarikoli, and have, besides, affinities with the Kafir and Chitrali ; again, it is apparent that the Pamir group is brought into contact with the Desert group owing to a relationship existing between the Pakhpu and Hami, while Kök-yar and Polur show a connexion with the Desert group through Khotan, and Karanghu-tagh through Hami. Other close relationships are those between Karanghu-tagh and Nissa, and between Loplik and Charkhlik.
If the limit of the 20 be raised to 6, we find that the Mastuji can be related with the Bagh-jigda as well as the Sarikoli, and though their EO as regards the Pakhpu is over 6, being in fact 6.27, yet the excess is so small that we may fairly regard them as belonging to the Pamir group. The .10 for the Kafir and Chitrali falls below 6, being 5.92, but the A for the nasal length is 1, and the relationship cannot, therefore, be regarded as so close as that existing between each and the Mastuji. As regards the Desert group, we find this now constituted by Turfan, Korla, Wakhi, Charkhlik, and Khotan, or by the first four and Hami. The EO for Hami and Khotan is 6.62, and the factor which brings it above 6 is that for the facial index, 1.33, due to the fact that the people of Khotan are considerably more euryprosopic. Further connexion between the Pamir and Desert groups is seen in the relation of the Mastuji with the Wakhi and of the Sarikoli with Turfan. Kök-yar, which has already been shown to possess affinities with Khotan, now becomes related to the Wakhi, and also with the Pamir group through the Sarikoli ; Keriya becomes attached to the Desert group through Khotan and Turfan, while similar relationships are seen to exist between Nissa and Hami, between Karanghu-tagh and the Loplik, and between the latter and the Chinese. The Kirghiz group also receive an addition in the Ak-su, who become related to the Kelpin and Dolan, their EA as regards the Kirghiz themsélves being only just over 6, viz. 6.2o. This excess is due solely to bead-circumference, which, as has been shown, does not afford trustworthy evidence. As yet this group has shown no relationship to either of the others, but, as a matter of fact, it lies far nearer to the Desert group than to the Pamir group. The EA of Ak-su and Kelpin only just misses inclusion in the present limit, being 6.2o, and containing no factor over 0.90 ; SO for Keriya and Kelpin, too, is only 6.82, though in this case 0 for the stature-span index amounts to 1.67. Other affinities, besides those already mentioned, appear between the Pamir and Desert groups, though in each case the EO contains a 0 of 1 or over ; they are the following, the words in brackets indicating the particular in which A attains or exceeds unity : Pakhpu and Karanghu-tagh (facial breadth), Pakhpu and Polur (facial breadth), Pakhpu and Nissa (facial breadth and stature-span index), Sarikoli and Hami (nasal breadth), Sarikoli and Khotan (facial breadth). It is obvious from this that the main particular in which the two groups differ is facial breadth, but that in the case of the Wakhi this difference does not occur. It is interesting to note that the average of the I0 of the Wakhi is the lowest, and never attains 10.
One people, that of Faizabad, has not been related at present to any other, and it is a fact that in no case has it a 110 which does not contain a factor under i. Its lowest 110 are with Khotan (6.59, 0 for span and stature-span index being over z) and with Ak-su (6.73, 0 for facial breadth and head-circumference being over 1).