sgraffiti : mod., 34 ;Endere) 275 sq., 286; (Chi i.en-fo-tung) 82o ; (Wan-fohsia) I I I I sqq.
Sha-chou, (' City of Sands ') : Tang designation of town of Tun-huang (q. v.), S78, 791 ; in Tang Annals, 293, 298, 306, 320 ; after Tang times, 32o ; in Hsüan-tsang's biography, 32I n. 24 ; M. Polo's Sachiu, 56o sq. ; ruined walls of, 6o8 ; old site of, ib. ; historical connexion of Kua-chou oasis with, 1092.
Sha-chou–Khotan itinerary in Tang-shu, 298 sq., 306, 32o sq., 327, 342 sq., 62o sqq.; translated by M. Chavannes, 133o.
Sha chou chih : Chinese text, 716 ; published by Mr. Lo Chtên-yü, ib. ; approx. date, ib. ; 0-fsang in, ib. ; Limes wall in, 734 sq. ; legend of ` Erh-shih spring' in, 1o9on. 4.
Sha-ch`üan-tzii, locality, 1143•
Sha-hsi, well of, 418, 419, 555 ; location of, 557 and n. 20.
Sha-ho (' River of Sand '), desert, 1144• See also Mo-ho-yen.
Sha-t'o : tribe of Western Turks, 1129; mentioned by Kao Chü-hui, ib. ; transferred to Kan-su border, ib.
Shah Beg, envoy of prince of Bolor ', 33. Shah Kalandar-shabri, ruin, 1232.
Shah Khush-amad, prince of ' Bolor
Shah Rukh, Mongol prince of Herat : his embassy, 299, 1123 sq. ; Lop desert route used by, 563 ; at Karaul (i. e. Chia-yü kuan), 1124 sq. ; idols of Kan-chou mentioned by, 1132.
Shah-tokhtaning-köli, lagoon, 455 ; list of finds near, 456.
Shahyâr, town, 5239.
Shahyar River, see Inchike.
Shait-kâk, natural rock-cistern, 1302. Shakul, canal, 203.
shale, fr., 251 ; disc, 29o.
Shamsuddin, Naik, assistant, 533 n.
Shan, kingdom of, 333; identified with Kizil-sangir (i. e. Singer), 334 ; called Mo-shan by Li Tao-yUan, 326, 334 n. 6, 420 ; location of, 333 sq., 420, 1231.
Shan-hsi, soldiers from, 75o, 751 n. 49.
Shan-nt-lo-shih, valley, see Adinzai Valley.
Shan-shan (Shen-shen) : territory and town of,325; wrong location of town at Na-chih (mod. Lapchuk), 337 n. 13, 343 ; and at mod. Pichan, 337 n. 13 ; known as Lou-lan in Han times, 306, 32o sq., 327, 333 sqq. ; between Tang and Han times, 322 sqq. ; name applied to Lop by Pei Chu and Sung Yün, 323 ; Fa-hsien's journey to and description of Shan-shan (i. e. Charkhlik), 323 sq., 334 n. 4 ; Li Tao-yüan's notice, 324 sqq. ; his extract from Former Han Annals, (Lou-lan) 325,
333 sqq. ; name changed from Lou-Ian (q• v.), 325, 333; S. in Wei &ô, 328, 341; in Chin Annals, 328, 341,408; in Later Han Annals, 329 sqq. ; threatened by 1-Isien, king of Yarkand, 329 ; An and Kuang, kings of Sh., 33o ; expedition under Pan Ch`ao to, 33o sq. ; Hun troubles after Pan-ch`ao, 331 ; Hun raids, 337 sq. ; Pan Yung's military colony (see Lou-lan), 33r sq.; his operations against Turfan, 332 sq. ; assisted by Shan-shan, 332, 34o; Lou-lan included in Shan-shan territory in Later Han Annals, 332 n. 21 ; Sh. capital (Vu-ni, q. v.), 333 ; Chao P`o-nu's expedition against Lou-lan, 336, 339, 407 ; Lou-lan and the ' Salt Marsh ' in Ssû-ma Chien's history, 338 ; Loulan between Huns and Chinese, 339 sqq.; the Po-lung-tui, eastern extremity of Lou-tan, 340 sqq. ; kingdom re-established as Shan-shan, 342 sq. ; anc. name of Lou-lan retained for colony N. of Lop-nOr, 343 ; capital of Lou-lan and its supposed transfer, 343 sq. ; Sh. identified with Lou-lan in Chien Han shu, 344; Sh. in Tang-shu, 1331. See also I-hsiin, Lop, Lou-lan.
population and officials of: in Former Han Annals, 3 33 ; their account of the people, physical features, etc., of, 335.
routes and distances from, in Former Han Annals, 295, 333 sq.; Pei Chi's notice of routes through, 323, 426; routes leading W. of, in Later Han Annals, 329, 456; Pan Ch`ao's reference to desert route to, 331 ; route to \Vu-lei, Singer, and Turfan from, 334 ; route S. of Lop-nor to Sh., 34o ; summary of anc. Lop topography and routes, 344 sq.
seal impressions of Chinese official of, from Niya Site, 23o, 239, 26o, 262, 266, 329 ; Sh. mentioned in tablets from Niya Site, 219, 329.
Shan-yi1, paramount Hun chief, 695.
Shandur Pass, 42. .
Shang-mi, 43; Hsüan-tsang's description of, 43 sqq.; identified with 1\Iastûj, 44• See also Chii-wei.
Shang-ssü, division of Chien-fo-tung cave-temples, 822.
Shang-Yen-chia, see Yen-chia.
Shao-hsi, see Chinese coins.
Shao-hsing, see Chinese coins.
shavings from wooden tablets, indicate fresh use of old stationery, 375, 598, 646, 685, 763.
Shawitakh Pass, 56 sq.
Shayôs, glacier, advance of, 51.
Shê lun chang, Chinese MS. fr. of, 918. Shê-mi : identified with Kafiristan, 9 sq.,
3 r ; Sung Yün's and Hui-shêng's
route through, 9 sq.
sheaths, wooden, for dagger, r288, 1292. See also knife-sheath.
sheep : in Chieh-shieh, 31 ; near Kutnchapkan, 351 ; mentioned in Tibetan docs., 1465 ; soapstone figurine of, too, 119 ; sheep in paintings, 1023, 1215.
sheep pens, 589 ; ruins used as, (Niya) 24o, 245, 427 ; (Lou-lan) 400, 402, 427 ; (Mïran) 427, 490. See also Chong-hasstir.
shelf or rack, wooden, 645.
shell : frs. of, 1106 sq. ; bead, see s. v. ; orn., 1314.
shells, see Linnaea auricularia, snail-shells.
Shen-hsi : Goéz's Scensi, 1126 n. 25. Shên-sung, see Chinese coins.
sheng, Chinese pint measure, in Chinese
shepherd station, ruin used as, Iz80.
See also sheep pens.
Sher `Ali Khan, Kabuli trader, 676, 703. Shera Yögurs, Mongol-speaking tribe at N. foot of Nan-shan, 1129.
shields : mentioned in Limes does., 759 ; represented on stucco relief frieze, plain with bosses, 1193, 5209, 1212 ; with Gorgoneion, 1193, 1209, 1212, 1219; in paintings, 963, 974, 98o, etc.
Shighnan (Shih-ch'i-ni, territory of the Five Ch'ih-ni or Shih-ni) : Wu-k`ung in, 17, 64 ; Kao Hsien-Chih in, 53 sq. ; estimated circumference of, 44 n. 20 ; account of, in Tang Annals, 64 ; by Hsüan-tsang, ib.
skit, measure of weight, in Limes docs.,
Shih-ch'êng (' Stone town ') : located at
Charkhlik, 306, 320, 327, 735 ; etymology, 321 ; in Sha chou chih, 734 ; in Tang shu, 1331.
Shih-êrh-tun, hamlet, 1136 ; possible early location for Jade Gate, 726 ; direct route to Hàmi through, r 138.
shih—Ju, subaltern official, mentioned in Limes doc., 690.
Shih Huang-ti, Ch'in Emperor, creates `Great Wall ', 722.
Shih-ch'i-ni, see Shighnan.
Shih-li mang-ch'ieh-lo (Shill-1i ch`angch'ieh-lo or Shih-li-tan-ch'ieh-lo), Jabgu of Tokharistan, in Chinese Annals, 29, 3o.
Shih-ni, see Shighnan. -
Shliht-pan-tung, ruined town of, 588, 6o 1 ;
wrecked temple and Ya-mêu in, ib.
Shih-pao-ch`êng, locality, 581 ; ruined
shih-shih, subordinate officer, on Limes,
Shih shih hsi yil chi, quoted : on A-nou-la
(Charchan) river, 297 ; on Lop-nor,
Shih-tsao, village, 587.
Shih-wu-fou, roadside shelter, 61 o. Shikchin : hamlet, 1224 ; ' Ming-oi', S.