Sec. ii] THROUGH AK-SU AND UCH-TURFAN 1297
The main objects which had brought me to Ak-su were attained during my five days' stay at the ` New Town ', the headquarters of Fan Ta-jên. In the course- of this long-planned reunion I was able to thank that valued old Mandarin friend in . person for all the effective help which, as Tao-t'ai of Ak-su, he had extended to me in his division, ever since I first entered it at Charkhlik, and far beyond its eastern limits, too. I could also satisfy his unfailing scholarly interest in the results of my labours by showing him specimens of my finds of ancient Chinese records, etc. At the same time Fan Ta-jên's powerful recommendation enabled me to assure all the local assistance which R. B. Lai Singh needed for the continuous survey he was to carry through the outer Tien-shan ranges as far as the passes north of Kashgar. His friendly interest was secured also for Chiang Ssû-yeh, whose devoted services had helped so much towards the success of my efforts.
The inquiries made during my stay at Ak-su failed to produce any information pointing to the existence of old remains within the district. Nor do its early history and topography call for prolonged comments since the essential data available in the Chinese records have already been duly elucidated by MM. Chavannes and Grenard. It is the latter's merit to have first correctly demonstrated that the territory which in the Former Han Annals is described under the designation of Ku-mo ttt M. and is mentioned by the same name also in the Later Han Annals and the Wei lb is identical with the present Ak-su.3 The Former Han Annals' notice places it quite correctly to the west of Kuei-tzû, or Kuchâ, at 67o li distance, and Khotan to the south ` at a distance of fifteen days' journey on horseback ', the very number of marches which I counted between Khotan and Ak-su. The population of 3,500 families indicated seems to bear an approximately correct proportion to the 6,970 families recorded for Kuei-tzû (Kuchâ) or the 4,000 given for Yen-ch'i, or Karashahr.4 Of Wên-su a re, which the same notice puts 270 li to the • west of Ku-mo, and which modern Chinese geographical texts and administrative nomenclature wrongly identify with Ak-su, MM. Grenard and Chavannes have shown that it corresponds to Uch-Turfân (Map No. 19. A. 4).5
A passage of the Tang Annals clearly indicates the identity of the Ku-mo of ' Han times with the `little kingdom of Po-lu-chia' a i1 ~1A which Hsüan-tsang reached from Kuchâ after having crossed a small desert for 600 li westwards.° Another passage of the Tang shu, in recording a full itinerary from Kuchâ westwards to Uch-Turfân (Wên-su) and beyond, mentions the town of Ak-su
by the names of Po-huant or Wei jung 31 or Ku-mo, and correctly describes its position.?
To this string of varying names for the same place must be added the form Chi-mo A 4., which the
first passage of the TanK shu records as a variant, and the forms Po-huan ;y, '% or Pu-han ∎M 9
which Wu-k`ung mentions in addition to Wei Jung 8 Hstian-tsang's description of Po-lu-chia, which the Tang Annals reproduce without adding more than the identity of the ` little kingdom ' with Ku-mo, or Chi-mo, is brief. He states its extent as about 600 li from east to west by 300 li from north to south, and the size of its capital as 5 to 6 li in circuit. ' In general characteristics this country and its
Stay at Fan Ta-yen's head- quarters.
Ak-su the Ku-mo of Han Annals.
3 Cf. M. Grenard's observations fully quoted in
M. Chavannes' note, Les pays d'occidenl 'd'apris le Wei ho, T'oungpao, 1905 pp. 553, note I. For the Former Han Annals' notice, see Wylie, Notes on the Western Regions, J. Anthrop. Inst., xi. pp. 93 sq. ; for the mention in the Later Han Annals, T'oung pao, 1907, p. 208.
4 Cf./ Anlhrop. Inst., xi. pp. 94, IOI.
5 The maps Nos. 19, 23 show that here, too, the'bearing and distance indicated are perfectly correct, the latter being about fifty-five miles by road measure from the Old Town' of Ak-su and the direction due west to the town of UchTur1an.
6 Cf. Chavannes, Turcs occid., p. 12o; Julien, Mimoires, i. p. Io; Watters, Yuan Chuang, p. 64. The location of Po-lu-chia at Ak-su was correctly recognized already by V. de Saint-Martin ; see Mémoire analytique, in Julien, Memoires, ii. p. 265.
7 Cf. Chavannes, Turcs occid., p. 8.
8 See Chavannes-Lévi, L'itinéraire d'Ou-k'ong, J. Asiat., 1895, sept.-oct., p. 363.
Wu-k'ung travelled to Ak-su from Khotan about A. n. 787, on his way back to China. Obviously he had to make this great detour because the direct route via Lop and Tun-huang was blocked by the Tibetans.