1236 TO KUCHA AND THE KERIYA RIVER END [Chap. XXX
journey that observations on the historical topography and old remains of the Bugur-Kucha section can more appropriately be discussed.
Territory of I may, however, conveniently add here some remarks concerning the ground to the south
which was touched by our surveys along the Inchike, or Shahyâr, River. There can, I think, be no doubt that the area comprising the riverine tracts between the Inchike-daryâ and the Tarim from below Shahyâr to the vicinity of the Konche-daryâ is identical with the territory of Cla`ii-li
which the Former Han Annals repeatedly mention in connexion with an early Chinese military colony.2 The special notice on Ch`ü-li tells us that this territory, the modest resources of which are sufficiently indicated by the mention of a population of ' 130 families, comprising 1,48o persons ', with 15o troops, had Wei-li as its neighbour on the north-east, Chii-mo on the south-east, and Chingchüeh on the south.3 The river it adjoined led westwards to Kuchâ at a distance of 58o li.' A glance at the general map shows that the position here described with reference to Wei-li (Karakum-Tikenlik), Chü-mo (Charchan), Ching-chtieh (Niya Site), and Kuchd. corresponds exactly to that occupied by the riverine tracts above indicated.
Tarim R. applies equally to the corresponding section of the Tarim River south of it, as was seen on its
found now along the line of the Inchike-daryä surveyed by R. B. Lai Singh, and the same remark
The maps Nos. 39, 42 will show how small and scattered are the patches of cultivation to be survey in 1915. Nevertheless the possibility of cultivation, whether permanent or of the intermittent type above mentioned, is. proved within the limits fixed by the physical difficulties which frequent changes in the river-courses and risks of exceptional floods and abnormally low water-levels must necessarily imply on such ground. It thus becomes possible to account for the efforts which the Chinese, during the earliest period of their expansion into the Tarim Basin, made for establishing a military agricultural colony in Ch`ü-li.
These efforts began immediately after the successful expedition to Ta-yuan or Farghâna
agricultural (Io1 B. c.), when we are told of several hundred military colonists being settled at Lun-t'ai tra colony of and Ch`ü-li.~ The identity of Lun-t`ai with the relatively large oasis of Bugur (Map No. 42. A. 1, 2 ;
39. D. i) has been recognized long ago and is certain.6 The Former Han Annals' notice of Ch`ü-li, after referring to this first establishment of the colony, reproduces at length a memorial addressed to the Emperor Wu-ti in 90 B.C. and the rescript issued in reply, which clearly suggest that its success was then of short duration.' Incidentally, however, we receive a glimpse of the natural difficulties besetting agriculture on such ground in the references which the memorial makes to the need of improving the naturally fertile soil there by ' drains and watercourses ' and of settling the indigenous people, who manifestly were semi-nomadic like the present Lopliks. The hope expressed was that ' following their original vocation of rearing cattle, they would also clear the land'.
The proposal made in the memorial of re-establishing military colonies at Lun-t'ai and in the territories of Ch`ii-li and Chieh-chih 8 east of it was negatived at the time. But in 68 B. c. the
2 This identification has been correctly indicated already by Dr. Herrmann, Seidenstrassen, p. r z r. It is in no way affected by an apparent misapprehension as to the present physical conditions of this tract, as shown by his reference to an ' oasis Ormäng'.
3 Cf. Wylie, Notes on the Western Regions, J. Anlhrop. Inst., xi. p. 95.
4 This is obviously the sense of the passage which Mr. Wylie translates : ` It (Ch'ü-li) is bounded on the west by a river, which leads to Kuei-tzû (Kuchâ) at a distance of 58o li.' The Muzart-daryä flowing past Kuchâ and Shahyâr and lower down known as the Inchike-daryä is clearly meant.
5 Cf. Wylie, J. Anlhrop. Inst., x. p. 22 ; for a lucid discussion of this passage in the Chien Han shu, see Chavannes, • T`oung pao, 1907, p. 153, note 2.
e See Wylie, J. Anlhrop. Inst., x. p. 22. The Ch'ien Han shu, ibid., xi. p. 99, declares Lun-Cai conterminous with the territory of Ch'ii-li.
' See Wylie, J. Anlhrop. Inst., xi. pp. 95 sq.
8 This Chieh-chih , of the text translated by Mr..
Wylie is not mentioned elsewhere. The indicated position eastwards suggests its possible identity with the oases of Yangihissär and Châdir on the present high road east of Bugur.
At one of these, I believe, must be located Wu-lei ,,%