136o NOTES ON THE PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY OF [Appendix C
whom he measured, but from indications afforded by hair- and eye-colour it is obvious that the Galcha are very closely allied to the Wakhi, and stand in closer relation to the Pamir peoples than to the Kirghiz group. Their percentages are as follows, and can be compared with Tables i 3 and 14. Hair : black, 9.4 per cent. ; dark brown, 50.2 per cent. ; red, 1.9 per cent. (one individual) ; medium and fair, 37.7 per cent. Eyes: dark, i i per cent. ; medium, 6o•3 per cent. ; light, 2o•7 per cent. The ED shows that the Galcha arc definitely opposed to the Chinese, the Ladakhi, and the Indo-Afghans. The fact that the EO for the Kafir is 4.97 indicates that
the element which differentiates the latter people from the Pamir folk proper is evidently not Iranian. •
Pathans.—The affinities of the Pathans in terms of ED arc shown in Tables i6, i8, and 19. As regards resemblances, the connexion of the three Indo-Afghan peoples is at once obvious ; moreover, the fact that the EO for the Kafir falls under 3.5o, taken with the further fact that Table 18 shows the Pathan to be far removed from the Kirghiz group and from several important tribes of the Desert group, leads us inevitably to the conclusion that the clement which differentiates the Kafir from the Pamir and Desert peoples is Indo-Afghan.
Biloch.—The same three tables show the affinities of the Biloch, whose higher degree of brachycephaly
* brings them into relation with the Sarikoli and Mastuji. It has been shown that the Mastuji are closely related
to the Kafir, and the Sarikoli to the Mastuji. We may conclude, therefore, that the Biloch contain an appreciable Iranian element, and, possibly, that the Mastuji and Sarikoli may possess a slight, but very slight, Indo-Afghan strain. The latter supposition is problematical, but receives a little support from the fact that these tw.o tribes have on the whole darker hair than the Wakhi, who seem to stand nearest to the comparatively pure Iranian as exemplified in the Galcha.
Dard.—The most interesting point with regard to this people is that they appear closely related to the Chitrali, while their comparatively low ED for the Kafir, 3.1o, is invalidated by a 0 of 1.4o for the nasal length. Now, it will be remembered that the EO for the Kafir and Chitrali was only 5.92, but that O for the nasal length was roo. We find, therefore, that the Dards differ from the Kafir in the very same respect as the Chitrali, though to a greater degree. The averages for the absolutes are : Dards, J3 ; Chitrali, 51 ; Pathan, 5o ; and Kafir, 46. It is evident that some strain of Indo-Afghan blood enters into the composition of the Chitrali, and it is difficult to account for the shortness of nose among the Kafirs, a characteristic which is shared, though to a less degree, by the Sarikoli and Mastuji. This shortness of nose cannot be due to Galcha influence, since the average of that people is 52. Measurements of more of the surrounding tribes are necessary before this point can be elucidated. The Dards show a considerable dissimilarity to the Kirghiz and Desert groups.
Ladakhi.--Jt is clear that we are badly in need of the facial measurements to define accurately the relation of the Ladakhi to the tribes under discusssion. As far as the measurements obtainable go, this people show affinities with certain of the Pamir group, of the Desert group, and the Chinese and Loplik. At the same time they display a definite divergence from the Kirghiz group. They are probably a very mixed people, and contain Indo-Afghan, Tibetan, and possibly Pamir elements.
Tibetans.—The most noticeable point about the Tibetans is that their IA in relation to all tribes is very low. It is strange that the highest should be that expressing their relation with Niya, one of the villages of the southern desert, which appears to be an aberrant member of the Desert group, and which might be supposed to owe its peculiarities to Tibetan influence. On the other hand, there seems to be some kinship between the closely inter-related members of the Desert group and the Tibetans, as was suggested, with respect to Khotan, in my previous paper, to which allusion has been made above.
To sum up, the measurements show that the majority of the peoples surrounding the Taklamakan desert - have a very large common element. Further, that this element is seen in its purest form in the Wakhi. The fact that the Wakhi display so close a relationship with the Galcha proves that the basis of the Taklamakan population is Iranian. At the north-western edge of the desert an intrusive element, which can be sharply differentiated from the Iranian, makes its appearance—the Turki element. Besides this there seems to be some common bond between the peoples of the desert and of Tibet. This probably means that the Iranian element has penetrated to Northern Tibet, though it is not unlikely that Tibetan (modified Mongolian) influence has been exercised, to a slight degree, upon the Desert peoples. In any case the relationship with Tibet requires