App. G] COLLECTION OF TIBETAN DOCUMENTS î461
of the names are of historical interest, as they agree with ministers' names given in the old stone-edicts of ]Hasa. (See Lieut.-Col. Waddell's edition in the J.R.A.S., î910-I r.) Thus the names of the famous ministers rje-blas and sTag-sgra, of the Potala inscription of A.D. 730, are repeatedly mentioned on documents of the Stein Collection. The same may be said with regard to the ministers Klzri-bzher and sTag-bzher of the Potala inscription of A. D. 764, and several names of ministers occurring in the inscription of A.D. 783. As regards the names on the stone-edicts, they are generally compounds of personal names and clan-names. The Stein documents, on the other hand, generally give only the personal names, at any rate in all those cases when a famous and well-known minister is addressed. For this reason the identification of the names found in the Stein Collection and on the stone pillars at ]Hasa cannot yet be called perfect, but it is quite probable that both authorities treat of the same personages.
Although royal names are not found in the documents of the Stein Collection, several of them seem to refer to kings, either of the whole of Tibet or of vassal states. The wish ` May your helmet remain firm ! ' was addressed to royalty in those days as well as in quite recent times.
As regards the religious side of the question, a good number of the names are of Bonpo character. I may mention the names which contain the word lha, god (of the pre-Iuddhist pantheon), and Klu (Naga), gSas, K/zro, as one of their compound parts. The principal part of the name of the founder of the Bon religion, viz. gS/zen-rab, is found in several personal names ; for instance, in gSlzend-sum-bu, sKu gshen, gShen Phan-legs, etc. A few names remind us also of names occurring in the Kesar-saga, the old epic of Tibet. . . .
Names of women are extremely rare in the documents. rGya-mo is the name of a female slave ; viNâ-ma occurs once as the writer of a letter, but the word means ` daughter-in-law'.
Buddhist names are also of rare occurrence. On entering a monastery a man received a new Buddhist name. Thus we read that a man who was formerly called 'U-tang-gsas-chung received the name Byang-chub-bkra-shis when he entered a monastery. Other Buddhist names are : gZhon-nu-dpalgrub, sPyan-ras (probably), Byangchub, Yon-tan-seng-ge, dGe-bsnyen (Upasaka), Sha-ri-bu (Sariputra), lHa-sbyin (Devadatta), rpo-de (Vajra), rpo-rje-dgyangs, 'ajam-dpal (Manjugr1), Com-ldan-'adas (Bhagavan), dGe-mthso.
Several names are of interest as having been observed also in documents of Ladakh or other literature. Thus the name gYu-saga is found in the Stein Collection, and the same name is also given in the bTsun-rno-bkaithang yig, which professes to date from Padmasambhava's time, edited by Dr. B. Laufer. The syllables sMer-z/zang form part of one of the names in the Stein Collection, and several names containing the same syllables are found on the boulders near the bridge of Khalatse.2 . . .
In many cases the personal names are found in connexion. with titles. The most ordinary title of the documents is perhaps that of a minister, or blon-po, abridged blon. There arc, however, various kinds of ministers, as, for instance, rje-blon, a high minister ; The-blon, minister of seals ; dGra-blon, minister of enemies, probably ` minister of war ' ; So-b/on, minister of guards ; K/zri-blon, throne-minister ; P/zyi-blon, minister of outward affairs ; and Zhang-blon, uncle minister... .
Other titles are : Nang-rjepo, the great man of the inside, which I have usually translated by ` Minister of Inner Affairs' ; Khaga (modern Gaga), nobleman ; Yo-cho or Jo-co (modern Yo-bo), lord. I may note that in modern West-Tibetan the form Yo-jo is generally used for noble ladies, but in the Stein Collection the title jo-co seems to refer to men ; rTsc-rje, high summit (the sphere of work of this official has not yet become plain, perhaps he was a magistrate) ; Yi ge pa, secretary ; sPyii yigepa, general secretary ; gNyer, steward ; sDe po, head of a tribe ; 2nKharpa, head of a castle ; Khans-kyi-dbang po seems to have been the title of the major dolma who played such an important part in old Tibet. This title is given to Blon-rgyalgSum-bz/zer, the-royal minister gSnm-bzher.
Another group of titles consists of compounds with the word dpon, master. The following kinds of dpon have been noticed in the Stein Collection : Rn-dpon, perhaps ` master of a clan ' (rus) ; 'Og-dpon, lower officer, subaltern officer ; Z.hing-dpon, master of the fields (this title is still used nowadays : a Z/zing dpon is the man who has to regulate the irrigation of the fields) ; sTong-dpon, master of thousands, colonel ; dMag-dpon, army officer ; d/'hang-dpon, master of the host ; Chibs-dpon, master of the horse ; Khral-dpon, tax-officer ; dNgos-dpon, perhaps ` frontier officer ' ; the title Thsngs-dpon cannot yet be , •actly explained ; it may be the title of
a magistrate. Also the title Khong-ta cannot yet be translated. •
2 Francke, ` Historische Dokumente von Khalatse : Z.D.M.G., Bd. lxi, pp. 583 sqq.