Sec. Hi] FROM DOMOKO TO KHOTAN 1267
` Wang ', Beg of Kara-kâsh.1' In the course of levelling the ground for the fields of this young colony, remains of a ruined ` But-khâna', or temple, were said to have been struck. The pieces of hard stucco relievos then found had been carried off by Muhammad Sharif, a ` treasure-seeker ' and antique dealer of Khotan, and from 'him I was subsequently able to acquire them. They will be ,found fully described in the List below. The examination of all these relievo pieces conclusively shows that they had been hardened by accidental burning, just as those recovered at Ak-ferek, while their style leaves no .doubt that they had belonged to the wall-decoration of a Buddhist shrine of approximately the same period.12 I may add here that among the seventeen coins which Muhammad Sharif brought nie as having been found at Chalma-kazân in different places of newly cultivated ground, six are Sino-Kharosthi and two Wu-chu pieces, while the rest are of Tang issues down to the Ta-li period (A. D. 766-8o).13
The Kohmari hill, the ` Mount Gaynga' of Hstian-tsang and the ` Cow's head (Gotfrca) Hill ' of other accounts, Chinese and Tibetan, has already been fully described by me.14 After reaching it I searched once again the gravel-covered ridge above the sacred cave where it falls off with precipitous cliffs towards the Kara-kâsh River bed (Fig. 31). But nowhere could I trace any indication as to where the Buddhist convent mentioned by Hsüan-tsang and other shrines of this holy spot might have stood. Of the small grottoes lower down on the face of the cliff, which since 1900 had been made accessible, I have already had occasion to give details.'5 There, too, I have described the rock-cut tomb in the perpendicular cliffs facing Faizâbâd which I now was able to examine more closely (Fig. 32).lß Then after fully a year and a half year's absence I regained, on March 3o, Khotan town, and there had the great satisfaction of seeing all my antiques sent from Kuchâ safely stored at my old quarters, in Akhûn Beg's country house.
OBJECTS EXCAVATED AT KARA-YANTAK
Stucco relievos from Chalmakazân.
K.Y. 002. Fresco fr., part of diaper showing three rows of Buddhas seated in meditation (one, four, and three). Robes red against light brown oval vesicas bordered with bands of red and white squares (simplification of lotus-petal border). Intervening spaces pale green, with circular rosette—black, white, dull red, and buff—in each.
Above towards R. appears lower part of main subject. On maroon background is fig. seated cross-legged, nude except for red loin=cloth and light brown stole. His hands are folded before his body, which is open (?) like that of old man in Kha. i. c. 0097 ; his head is lost. Behind him on L. are red lotus buds, and on R. end of a semicircular lotus pond with brown stone (?) border. Good condition. I '2" X I0".
K.Y. 003. Fresco fr. painted with diaper of seated Buddhas; three complete rows and lower part of fourth.
" Cf. Desert Cathay, i. p. 167. Regarding the antiquity of the Chalma-kazân site and the probable location there of the Tsan-mo temple mentioned by Chinese accounts and also the Tibetan `Annals of Li-yul', cf. Ancient Kholan, i. pp. 233 Sqq.
" Among these stucco relievos, fragments of standing Buddha figures are particularly numerous; see Chal. oo1. a2 I. Other pieces deserving special notice are : the plaque of a small seated Buddha, Chal. 0027 ; the Bodhisattva head, Chat. 0042, Pl. X; the fine floral ornaments with acanthus
In top row and in two lower Buddhas are framed in elliptical borders of alternate red and white colouring as K.Y. 002 ; the quadrangular interspaces furnished with varieties of four-petalled flowers. Second row from top are in rectangles, red, green, and buff, and have Padmfisanas. Flesh yello}v throughout ; robes generally red, one dark brown and one buff. Very rough work. 15" X 18".
K.Y. I. 001. Stucco relief fr. Head of Gandharvi (?). Hair painted black and parted in middle. From centre of crown two locks are brought forward over brows, pointed like a pair of leaves. From under these locks hair is gathered back from temples along sides of head. Ears have short lobes. Eyes prominent, and half closed ; eyebrows black. Dark red line encircles eye-socket above and below lids, and outlines lower part of nose and ears. Lips also were dark red, flesh pink, pupil of eye a black
and palmettes, Chal. 0055-6, 0059, Pl. X; the antelope head, Chal. 0051, Pl. CXXxIx. On account of their materials may be mentioned the stone figure of a flying putto, Chal. 0037, and the terra-cotta pieces of a Buddhist rail', Chal. 0038-41, etc.
" See below, Appendix B.
14 Cf. Ancient Kholan, i. pp. 185-90.
u See above, p. 95.
1e See above, p. 96.