Sec. iv] ENDERE AND THE `OLD TU-HUO-LO COUNTRY' 289
its destruction by the Western Turks about a century later, extended over a vast region from the borders of Persia to the Tarim Basin, including also Khotan.7 It is equally well known that the Hephthalites had their chief seat in Tokharistan on the Oxus, and that Hsüan-tsang is referring to them and their predecessors in the rule of this region, the Great Yil.eh-chih, when he describes the various chiefships in Bactria and Badakhshan as having once formed part of the great kingdom of the Tu-huo-lo or Tukhara.° Moreover the Great Yiieh-chih, on their first occupation of Bactria, must themselves have mixed with its early invaders, the Tochari, so that it is safe to assume that the local designation of Tukhara had been in current use with them also long before its Chinese equivalent Tu-huo-lo first appears in the Annals of the Wei dynasty (A. D. 386-556).'
That the power of these earlier rulers of Tokharistan had made itself felt in the Tarim Basin, Influence of
m Tarim â
especially after the weakening of Chinese authority towards the close of the third century n. D., is `Tukhra' made highly probable by a variety of considerations. These must be left for discussion elsewhere. Basin. Here it will suffice to point out that we have direct indications of this influence in the repeated references which the Chinese records excavated at the Niya and ' Lou-lan ' sites make to ' Great Yiieh-chih' people.'0 The ruins of the earlier Endere settlement are, as we have seen, approximately contemporary with these sites, and thus a popular tradition connecting them with Tukhara predominance might well prove in the end to have had some historical foundation. But even if this approximation in time is treated as a mere matter of chance, it is credible enough that Hsüan-tsang should have heard the name of Tu-huo-lo mentioned in connexion with the ruined settlement by the Endere River. At his time Tukhara (i. e. Hephthalite) dominion was the latest of those still likely to be remembered by the people. Hence there could be nothing to cause surprise in his guides attaching this name to ruins, the real origin of which had probably been long forgotten.
SECTION V.—LIST OF ANTIQUES FOUND OR EXCAVATED AT ENDERE SITE
E. ooi. Pottery fr. from rim of hand-made jar. Illlevigated clay with white granulations. Evenly fired, surface sand-burned. Orig. diam. c. 8", length 22", thickness â"
Pottery fr. from hand-made vessel. Ill-levigated clay evenly fired to light red. Pattern of incised lines crossed diagonally, contained by two broader horizontal grooves. Gr. M. 2â", thickness â". Pl. XXXvI.
Pottery fr. from rim of wheel-made bowl. Light red, poorly refined clay. Turning grooves on outside. Shape recalls that of early Chinese bowls from Han tombs. Orig. diam. c. 6". thickness r to s".
Pottery fr. from coarse hand-made vase. Dark brick-red clay peculiarly ill-levigated. Hard and evenly fired. Gr. M. 2", thickness I" to r.
Bronze pendant : solid circle hanging from semicircle. Four attachment holes along serrated top edge.
7 Cf. Chavannes, Voyage de Song Yun, pp. 24, note 3, and 26 ; Turcs occid., pp. 222 sqq. ; also Ancient Kholan, i. p. 171. ° Cf. Julien, Mémoires, i. p. 23 ; \\Tatters, Yuan Chwang,
i. pp. roe.
AT ENDERE SITE
Below two incised circles with centres marked. In lower half three incised concentric circles with centre marked. Strap-end (?) "x r. Pl. Xxix.
Tapering lead rod bent nearly to form circle.
Found ro. xi. o6. Diam. 14", thickness to A".
Bronze wire bent to semicircle. Found 1o. xi. o6. Diam. é", tip to tip $".
E. oo8. Bronze arrow-head with three triangular blades protruding from the shaft at equal angles. Half missing. Found 1o. xi. o6. Length r. Pl. Xxlx.
E. oog. Glass ring, part of, of twisted rods of blue and yellow paste. Found 1o. xi. o6. Gr. M. I", diam. â".
E. ooio. Fr. of glass vessel, yellowish-white, translucent. Outside, three sand-ground, hollow-faced facets. Found 10. xi. o6. Gr. M. 1", thickness A".
' Cf. Franke, Tiirkvölker, p. 42; Marquart, Eràn,lahr, pp. zoo, 214.
10 See Ancient Kholan, i. p. 372; also below, chap. xr, sec. viii.