594 AT RUINED SITES OF TURFAN [Chap. XVIII
and work on a system of which Japan supplies examples in the Shôsôin and which is still in use there.
Among objects of military equipment represented, we have the iron casque, 0i05 (Pl. LXX), which is provided with holes for the attachment of a chain-mail curtain such as appears on clay figurines from Turfân graves, and has on its top a domical piece intended to hold a spike or crest ; the spear-head of steel or wrought iron, oio (Pl. LXX), which retains its long socket ; and the small javelin-head, oi8o (Pl. LXXI). Whether the small sheet of ` wired ' bronze, of 1o, formed part of armour, is doubtful. Iron loops such as 012, 0179, and attachments like 0194, 0200 (Pl. LXXI), probably belonged to harness, and some similar purpose may be assumed for the numerous rings, bosses, &c., in bronze and iron.
Objects of Small objects of personal use in silver had also found their way into the cache. Thus we have
personal the silver amulet case, 0136 (Pl. LXXI), decorated on both faces with a floral design in relievo, and
retaining a neatly worked chain partly in silver, partly in iron wire ; and the small silver figurine of a nude male, 0137 (Pl. LXXI), also intended for suspension. Two brass seals, 0176-7 (Pl. LXXI), show Chinese lapidary characters. Finally, the two pairs of shoes found near the metal objects deserve special notice. The embroidered lady's shoes, 03 (Pl. LXXXVIII), are of truly exquisite workmanship. They are made up of tapestry pieces remarkably strong in weave and still retaining their brilliant colours, and show elaborately embroidered floral ornaments. The other pair of shoes, 063 (Pl. LXXXVIII), which, judging from their shape, appear to have served a purpose corresponding to that of goloshes, are also elaborately worked with several superimposed layers of fabrics and decorated with appliqué bands displaying patterns in silver thread and corded silk.
Antiques There remain to be briefly mentioned the miscellaneous objects which I was able to acquire,
acquired. during my successive stays at Kara-khôja, from local cultivators or from petty dealers who collected antiques from the former. There can be little doubt that the great majority of these objects had been found, as asserted by the sellers, by persons digging for earth—or treasure—among the ruins of Idikut-shahri. The character of the objects, most of which may safely be ascribed to Uigur times, supports this view. A few, however, may perhaps have been obtained from tombs recently rifled in the extensive graveyards of Astâna to be described below. The reason why the supply of objects brought for sale was not more abundant may have been that the most active season of digging for manure had only just started when we left Turfân ; to some extent also I may have been forestalled by agents collecting for purchasers in Europe.
Illuminated The majority of the antiques acquired consisted of manuscript fragments on paper in Chinese,
Manichaean Brâhmi, and Uigur scripts. These together with some fragments in Sogdian and Runic TurkI, 1 r. n
p Presumably Manichaean, will be found inventoried elsewhere. Among the miscellaneous small
parchment. P Y g
objects described in the List below, the following may be specially noted here. Pictorial remains of distinct interest are the fragment of an illuminated Manichaean manuscript on parchment, Kao. IIII (Pl. LXXVII), and the fine coloured block-print on paper, Kao. 05 (Pl. LXXIII). The former, unfortunately torn and partly defaced, shows rows of worshippers, male and female, kneeling in two registers and wearing brilliantly coloured dresses. The particular interest of the fragment lies in its material, the use of leather being extremely rare for Manichaean texts and repugnant to the Manichaean mind, as Prof. von Lecoq kindly informs me. He believes that the fragment is likely to have belonged to a MS. brought from the West, where paper was not available. This opinion is borne out by the fact that the text, according to the reading and translation obligingly furnished by Dr. W. Lentz (App. R), is in the south-western variety of Sogdian.
Coloured The block-print, coloured by hand, represents two Chinese jugglers in elaborate costumes
block-print. performing on a bench. It is purely Chinese in style and a composition of considerable artistic