burials, end of third century A.D., 229 ; terminus a quo of original burials, end of second century B.c., 230 ; date of silk fabrics fixed by comparison with finds on Tun-huang Limes, 239, 241 ; textile relics, 231 sqq. ; materials, 231 ; woollen fabrics, weaves of, 231 ; Western designs in tapestries, 241 sq. ; cotton fabrics, weaves of, 231 ; silk fabrics, importance of, 231 ; weaves of, 232 sqq. ; decorative designs of, 235 sq.
L.D., ruined farm 2i miles ESE. of L.A., 218 ; finds include coin of Wang Mang (12-8 B.c.), 218.
L.E., castrum, 19 miles NE. of L.A., point d'appui on Han route, 260 ; construction similar to that of Limes, 26o, 261 ; orientation of, in direction of winds, 26o ; measurement of walls, 261 ; scanty remains of interior, 262 ; Chinese documents prove occupation as late as A.D. 266-7, 262 ; evidence of ancient route from L.E. to foot of Kuruk-tagh glacis, 275.
L.F., Mesa : ruined fort guarding Lou-lan road, 263 ; burial-ground and graves, 264 ; well-preserved bodies, 264, 265 ; dress, 264, 265 ; non-Mongolian type, 264-6; juxtaposition of bronze and stone objects, 266; cemetery of indigenous inhabitants of Lou-lan, 266.
L.G., much-eroded ruin near Loulan, reported by Afraz-gul, 219.
L.H., cemetery, coffins placed in roofed burial chambers, 276 ; contents of coffins, 276, 297 ; textile finds similar to those at L.C., 228, 277.
L.I., Mesa, remains found by Afrazgul at, 266 ; refuse heaps indicate occupation, 284 ; worked stones, bronze objects and pottery found near, 284.
L.J., Mesa : brushwood layers indicate ancient occupation, 286 ; foundations of watch-tower, 286 ; measurements and construction agree with those of Limes watch-towers, 287 ; situated on a continuation of line from L.A. to L.E.
L.K. : ancient fort, 184 ; construction of walls, 185 ; compared with Limes wall, x85 ; construction of gateway similar to that at Kara-dong, 186 ; relics of Stone Age, 184 ; finds near old river-bed prove occupation in early centuries A.D., 184 ; débris remains from large structure, Ili, 186 ; absence of large rubbish-heaps, 187 ; construction and measurements of ruin I, 187 ; carved wooden double bracket, similar to those at Miran and L.A., 187 ; rooms under NE. rampart, door, and clay platform, 188 ; room iv, pillar supporting roof with double bracket, 188 ; objects in metal and stone from outside fort, 188 ; date .of
occupation indicated by remains, third century A. D., 189 ; intended to guard the route between L.A. and Miran, 189 ; position of fort on ancient routes determined by agricultural colony L.M., 198.
L.L., 192 sqq. ; enclosure, 193 ; finds of printed silk and paper indicate same date as L.A..
L.M. site : approach to, I93 ; clearing of ruined dwelling L.M. i, 194 ; finds in refuse layers, 194 ; textiles and objects of Han type, 194 ; Sogdian and Chinese documents found in L.M. xi, 195, 1028 ; much-eroded structures, L.M. III, IV, 196 ; wide extent of ruins proves importance of settlement, 196 ; documents and coins prove its occupation contemporary with that of L.A., 196 ; evidence of early intercourse between China and West, 196 ; Stone Age remains, 196 ; an agricultural settlement, supplied with water by river-beds now dry, 197.
L.Q. Mesa : graves found on, by Afraz-gul, 284 ; cemetery, explored by Afraz-gul, 743 ; similarity of objects to those of L.F., L.S., L.T., 743.
L.R. : ruined dwellings on wind-eroded terraces, 746.
L.S. cemetery, 734 sq. ; enclosure of gravel and brushwood, 734 ; grave L.S. I surrounded by stockade, body possibly cremated, 734 ; contents of graves, 735 ; method of burial same as L.F., 735 ; stone and wooden female figures in graves, 735 ; burials belong to indigenous population, 736 ; date of burial, 736.
L.T. cemetery, 736 ; absence of stockade and coffins, 736 ; find of wooden figure, 737.
Lu-chung, in itinerary of Wang Yen-té, Liu-chung in Hou Han shu, the present Lukchun, 582 n. 6.
Lü Kuang, conquers Tarim basin, 575. Lun-t`ai, Chinese military colony, 770,
782, 794 ; located at Bugur, 782,
Lun-t`ou, another name for Lun-ttai,
794 n. 5.
Lung-ch`üan, the Dragon spring ' in Tang itinerary, 563 ; identified with Shaftulluk, 563.
Lung-tui, ` Dragon Mounds ', 308 ; identified with Po-lung-tui, q.v., 309.
M. = AIirân site, list of objects found or excavated near, 178.
M.B., M.C. = Murtuk : objects from ruin M.B., 638 ; M.C., 640.
M. Tagh. = Mazàr-tagh, list of objects brought by Kàsim Akhûn and others from, 94.
Ma-ni-ssû, Manichaean temple in Turfân, mentioned by Wang Yen-tê, 583.
Ma-ti-ssû, valley of, 5r3 ; monastery of Tibetan Buddhists, 513 ; upper tem-
ple, 513; cave-shrines, 5x3, 514 ; resemble those of Chien-fo-tung, 514 ;
sculptures in chapels, 514 ; relievo decoration of cella walls, 514 ; galleries, 515 ; probable early occupation of site, 515.
Ma-tsun-shan range, 526.
MACARTNEY, Sir George, H.B.M.'s Consul-General at Kashgar, help given by,
vii, x, 65, 103, 175, 320, 404.
mace, ox-headed, in hand of Rustam,
Machi, deserted village (Sistan), 946 ;
prehistoric pottery, 947 ; objects
found at, 959 sqq.
MACLAGAN, Sir Edward, Secretary to
Government, help given by, xv. MACPHERSON, Col. A. D., Political Agent
at Gilgit, 2.
Madrasah, of Shah Rukh, at Khargird,
Maës, Greek merchant ; see Ptolemy.
mail, in stucco, 443, 450, 468, 469 ; caltrop type, 474 sq•
Maitreya Bodhisattva, miraculous image
of, in Darél, 20 ; located at Poguch, 31. malaria in Yazgulàm, 888.
Malik Tajuddin, mentioned in Arabic in-
mallet, miniature (stucco relief), 616, 623.
Mâliim, Mongol interpreter engaged at Tun-huang, 372.
Mandala, in Chinese pictures, (Khara-
khoto) 451, 483, 490.
Manichaean manuscript frs.,(Kao-ch`ang)
590, 594, 598.
Manichaean MS. fragment in Runic
Turkish, note on by Professor V.
Thomsen, App. Q, 1082 sq.
Manichaean parchment, fragment of,
note on by Dr. W. Lentz, App. P, 1081.
Manichaeism, in Turfân, 577, 584. Maiijutri, seated on lion, on clay votive
relief, (Toyuk) 616, 626.
manure heaps, ignited, give burnt
appearance to brickwork, 93. manuscripts, from Balawaste and Khada-
` Inventory List of Manuscript Re-
mains mostly in Sanskrit,' by F. E. Pargiter, App. E, 1018 sqq.
` Inventory List of Manuscript Remains in Sanskrit, Khotanese, and Kuchean,' by Sten Konow, App. F, 1026 sqq.
` Notes on Manuscript Remains in Kuchean ', by Sylvain Lévi, 1028 sqq.
` Notes on Tibetan Manuscripts, &c.', by F. W. Thomas, App. R, 1084 sqq.
Mao-ch`ien, ` Ruler of Ho-hsi ', submits
to Wu-hui, 575.
Mao-mei, or Mao-mu, oasis, 409 ; correct
name, 409 n. I ; importance of, as