130 FROM KHOTAN TO LOP [Chap. IV
I remembered how on my previous visit I had observed small fragments of stucco relievos emerging from the slope of eroded soil below the foot of a big tamarisk-covered sand-cone near Balawaste, the northernmost of the smaller sites about Khadalik. These evidently marked the position of a ruined Buddhist shrine, which had first been exposed to erosion before being covered up by the accumulation of drift-sand.13 But a systematic search for such ruins in this large and deceptive area would have taken time, which my programme would not allow me to spare.
Curiously enough it was near Balawaste that the discovery was said to have been made of a considerable collection of fresco and stucco relievo fragments and of other miscellaneous relics from a Buddhist shrine, which Badruddin Khan delivered to me at Kashgar in June 1915.13a I have no means of verifying the statement; but, in view of the very close agreement of the relics in character and style with those found at Khadalik, I believe it to be probably correct. Among the fragments of mural paintings in tempera, some of large size and evidently cut off extant walls, others, no doubt, picked up loose in the debris, the following may be specially noted for their subjects. In Bal. 02 we have interesting architectural details of distinct Gandhara type ; in 05 a-h a collection of standing Buddha figures radiating as in representations of the Sravasti miracle ; in 094 a well-drawn yellow horse galloping ; in 098 a princely figure playing a harp with graceful hand ; in 0104 two ducks facing, & c. Donor figures of interest, on account of the faithful representation of their costume, are seen in 0117-18, 0121-7. Fragments of fine stucco painted both on front and back, 0122-3, 0128-9, may, perhaps, have belonged to partitions dividing small niches in a shrine. Among the many stucco relievo fragments the figures of floating Gandharvis (050, 075-6, 082, Pl. IV) may be noticed ; small Buddha heads are still more frequent (see Bal. 077, 090, Pl. V). In the fragment 092 we have distinct evidence that accidental burning has helped to harden these small stuccoes.
The area of ruined sites north-east of Domoko of which Khadalik marks the centre and Balawaste and Kuduk-köl the north and south ends, is likely to have been the source also of the series of miscellaneous relics marked D.K. in the List below. The small objects in metal, stone, and bone, D.K. 01-8 (PI. X, XI), were brought to me at Achma, where I stayed for the night after clearing the remains at Kuduk-köl. The rest, D.K. 09-104, were acquired by Badruddin either at Domoko itself or received from there through Mullah Khwaja and other inhabitants. The fragments of stucco reliefs, of which some are shown in Pl. IV, and the painted panels, unfortunately much effaced (D.K. 057, 0101-2, Pl. XIII), suggest provenance from temple remains of approximately the same date as those of Khadalik. _ The scraps of Tibetan, Chinese, and Brahmi writing found on wood, D.K. 017, 054, 055, agree with corresponding finds made at Khadalik.14 The small objects acquired through Badruddin Khan, and mainly stucco relief fragments, Kha. 01-4 (Pl. II, V), were said to have been brought from Khadalik itself. Remains of MSS. and some wooden records, mainly in Sanskrit and Khotanese, as well as in Tibetan, acquired through Badruddin Khan, were also ascribed to Khadalik and neighbouring sites.14a
Small antiques in metal, stone, and wood acquired by me at Domoko and marked in the List with U.Z. were said to have been found in the great debris area that extends north and south of the sacred burial-place of Ulûgh-mazar or Ulugh-ziarat in the desert to the north-west of Dombko.ls I have, I believe, proved that it marks the position of Hstian-tsang's Pi-mo and Marco Polo's Pein.'6 Judging from what my visits to this ground in 1901 and 1906 had shown me, I think that
13 See Serindia, i. p. 198.
13a Frs. of MS. foil. and documents thus received, mainly in Sanskrit but also in Khotanese, are described by Mr. Pargiter and Prof. Konow in App. E, F (Balaw. 0149-
55, 0173-222). 14 Cf. Serindia, i. pp. 155, 162, 164.