45o THE ETSIN-GOL DELTA AND THE RUINS OF KHARA-KHOTO [Chap. XIII
Remains The remains of artistic or technical interest recovered from the wreckage were, as the Descrip-
of stucco tive List shows, numerous enough. But after the account given above of the conditions in which sculptures.
they were found, it cannot cause surprise that almost all have badly suffered, whether at the time
when the shrine was cleared-and demolished-or subsequently through exposure. Nevertheless a brief review of them will be useful if only to show how much it is to be hoped that the large and valuable haul of antiques which Colonel Koziov's expedition carried away from this ruin may yet obtain that adequate study and publication which it deserves. The mass of sculptural fragments in stucco proves that the number of images of all sizes, from colossal statues down to mere figurines, must have been considerable relatively to the limited space afforded by the domed chamber.
Such parts as ears, fingers, hands from life-size or larger statues, K.K. I1. o86, 94-6, 99, 114, 141, 225, &c. (Pl. LIV), had naturally a better chance of surviving than heavy heads or torsos in clay, of which several were found lying, bereft of their painted surface and almost unrecognizable, amidst the debris and on the ground below it. Of some Buddha heads of large size only the masks of faces modelled in harder stucco, 0185-7 (Pl. LIV), could be found. The colossal forearm, oioi (P1. LV), is of interest as it is clad in a peculiar type of gilded mail, with links resembling a caltrop', which appears also in several other stucco fragments, 084, 103, 163, 197 (Pl. LV), and which is seen also on the figure of Vaisravana in several Chien-fo-tung paintings. It is highly probable that the fragments of mail found here, too, belonged to a Lokapâla image. To the figure of a demon crouching below a Lokapâla's feet may be attributed the fragment of a demonic face, 0184 (Pl. LIV), with wide open eyeball. Among the remains of small stucco images the following deserve special mention : the well-modelled heads of Buddhas and Bodhisattvas, 0188-9, 221 (Pl. LIII) ; the distinctly negroid-looking head, 0126 (Pl. LIII) ; the seated figures, oio8, 156 (Pl. LIII, LIV), and draped torsos, 0104, 175, 226 (Pl. LIII) ; and the curious animal skulls, 0118, 127 (Pl. LIII). Animal figures are represented by several small leopards, in different attitudes, 0145, 159, 170 (Pl. LIII), and the head of a dragon, 0190 (Pl. LIII). Among remains of wood-carving the dignified statuette of a standing Buddha, of (Pl. LXVI), with its curious look of a Gothic sculpture, is of distinct interest, and so also is the well-carved figure of a aivaitic divinity straddling over two monsters, 0312 (Pl. LIII).
Remains Numerous fragments of painted plaster attest that the walls of the chamber were adorned in.
of wall tempera. Pieces like 0125, 138, 148, 166, 183 (Pl. LV), showing coffers with graceful grisaille
ornamentation, look as if they had belonged to the vaulted ceiling. That figures formed part of
the fresco decoration is shown by pieces like 0105, 118 (Pl. LIII). Other fragments like 0145, 155, exhibit very elegant designs in grisaille. It is probable that a fine fresco panel which had been cut out and was found by us in one of the recesses carved into the interior of the northern town wall was brought away by Colonel Kozlov's party from this shrine and then accidentally left behind there.
Fragments The remains of paintings on silk, o8, io, I I, 24, 45, 74, 81, 311, had all suffered more or less by
of silk exposure ; but there could be no doubt that in arrangement and general style they corresponded
c closely to the silk banners recovered by me in such numbers from Chien-fo-tung. The fragment
011, with its graceful floating figure of an Apsaras, is not inferior to the average of the latter in design and technique. In 035, 66, we have fragments of canvas banners, like those of Chien-fo-tung.
Book But far more numerous are the block-printed designs representing Buddhist divinities and other
illustrations sacred subjects, which were found among the packets of printed leaves from Hsi-hsia texts as book by block
print. illustrations or as detached pictures. The reproductions contained in Plates LXII-LXV, and the
detailed descriptions in the List (pp. 480-98) given of those pieces of which Mr. Andrews has been able to make a careful examination, show the considerable interest attaching to these pictorial remains in spite of all the damage they have suffered, partly at the time of the original ` clearing '